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SOCSCI 

DA  BB0.LS  B77 
Brawn  ?  Peter  ?  Rev . ,  of 
His tor ieai  sketches  of 
par  i sh  of  Camhusnet  hav 


THE  LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY  Of  GUELPH 


HISTORICAL   SKETCHES 


PARISH  OF  CAMBUSNETHAN. 


BY  THE 

REV.    PETER    BROWN, 


S&fejfafo : 
DAVID   JOHNSTON,   MAIN  STREET. 

EDINBURGH  :   W.  OLIPHANT  AND  CO. 
GLASGOW  :   D.  ROBERTSON. 

1859. 


W5  3> 


PRINTED   BY 

DAVID  JOHNSTON, 

W1SHAW. 


THE   EIGHT   HONOURABLE 

LORD  BELHAVEN  AND  HAMILTON, 
LADY  SETON-STEUART, 

OP  ALLANTON   AND  TOUCH, 

JAMES  SINCLAIR-LOCKHART,  ESQUIRE 

OP  CASTLEHILL, 
AND 

HENRY  HOULDSWORTH,  ESQUIRE 

OF  COLTNESS, 

THE    REPRESENTATIVES 

OP 

THE    PRINCIPAL    ESTATES 

IN  THE 
PARISH  OF  CAMBUSNETHAN, 

OP 

"historical  sketches" 

IS, 

WITH   KIND   PERMISSION,    RESPECTFULLY   INSCRIBED, 

BY 

THE  AUTHOR. 


PREFACE. 


The  u  Wishaw  Mechanics'  Institute  "  was  brought  into 
existence  in  the  year  1852.  The  author  of  this  volume 
lent  his  aid  to  the  "Institute"  from  the  commencement ; 
and  has  annually — except  when  the  state  of  his  health 
forbade  him — given  one  or  more  lectures  on  topics  connected 
with  popular  science,  natural  and  national  history,  popular 
superstitions,  and  antiquarian  research.  Several  of  the 
Directors  being  aware  that  he  had  collected  a  considerable 
amount  of  information  in  connexion  with  the  Parish  of  Cam- 
busnethan,  embracing  the  period  between  the  Restoration  of 
Charles  II.  and  the  Revolution,  pressed  him  to  throw  this 
information  into  regular  shape,  and  embody  it  into  a  lecture, 
to  be  given  during  the  following  session.  After  having 
agreed  to  do  this,  he  became  convinced  that,  as  the  topic 
was  one  of  local  interest,  he  might  advantageously  travel 
beyond  the  limits  of  the  twenty- eight  years  of  Prelatic  per- 
secution, and  especially  backward  over  parochial  incidents 
of  an  older  date.  The  filling  up  of  this  more  enlarged  sketch 
occupied  an  occasional  hour  of  literary  recreation  ;    and 

A 


VI  PREFACE. 

when  his  researches  into  the  matters  which  he  had  selected 
had  approached  something  like  completeness,  he  found  it 
necessary  to  throw  them  into  the  form  of  two  lectures — one 
on  the  Antiquities  of  the  Parish,  the  other  on  the  Share 
which  the  Parish  had  in  the  Sufferings  of  the  Persecuting 
Period. 

Immediately  on  the  delivery  of  these  lectures,  on  the  4th 
and  11th  of  February  last,  a  very  general  desire  for  their 
publication  was  expressed.  "The  pressure  from  without" 
having  been  so  urgent,  the  author  assented  to  their  being 
sent  to  the  press.  In  doing  so,  he  saw  it  to  be  proper  not 
only  to  enlarge  on  some  topics  partially  touched  on  in  the 
lectures  when  delivered,  but  to  introduce  a  considerable 
amount  of  information,  on  a  variety  of  matters,  which  were 
not  so  much  as  alluded  to.  He  is  persuaded  that  in  having 
done  so,  the  volume  has  been  rendered  all  the  more  accept- 
able, to  those  who  feel  an  interest  in  the  topics  discussed  in 
it.  These  prefatory  statements  will  serve  not  only  to 
explain  the  occasion  of  publishing  this  volume,  but  account 
for  the  style  of  the  lecture  room,  which  the  author  in  several 
passages  has  thought  fit  to  retain. 

It  may  be  satisfactory  to  those  who  feel  an  interest  in 
the  subject  of  this  volume,  to  be  able  to  form  some  idea  of 
the  extent  of  the  author's  researches,  the  sources  from  which 


PREFACE.  Vll 

his  information  has  been  derived,  and  the  anxiety  which  he 
had  to  combine  fulness  with  variety  of  statement,  within 
the  narrowest  compass.  He  therefore  subjoins  the  following 
list  of  the  authorities  which  he  found  it  necessary  carefully 
to  consult: — 

Kegistrum  Episcopatus  Glasguensis. 

The  Cartularies  of  the  Abbey  of  Aberbrothwick. 

The  Cartularies  of  the  Abbey  of  Kelso. 

Bede's  Ecclesiastical  History. 

Usher's  Antiquities  of  the  British  Churches. 

D'Aubigne's  History  of  the  Reformation  in  England. 

Burnet's  History  of  his  own  Times. 

Commissary  Records  of  Glasgow. 

Records  of  the  Lords  of  the  Privy  Council. 

Sommerville's  "  Memorie  of  the  Sommervilles." 

Hamilton's  Description  of  the  Sheriffdom  of  Lanarkshire. 

Douglas'  Peerage  and  Baronage  of  Scotland. 

Burke's  Peerage. 

Nisbet's  Heraldry. 

Crawford's  Peerage. 

Crawford's  Genealogical  History  of  the  Royal  House  of 
Stewart. 

Balfour's  Annals  of  Scotland. 

Buchanan's  History  of  Scotland. 

Tytler's  History  of  Scotland. 

Sinclair's  Statistical  Account  of  Scotland. 


Vlll  PREFACE. 

Wodrow's  Church  History. 

Cook's  History  of  the  Reformation  in  Scotland. 

Carlyle's  Cromwell. 

Old  Mortality. 

Simpson's  Traditions  of  the  Covenanters. 

Report  of  Commissioners  on  Religious  Instruction. 

Scott's  Notices  of  the  Associate  Congregation  of  Cam- 

busnethan. 
Frazer's  Life  of  Ralph  Erskine. 
M'Crie's  Vindication  of  the  Covenanters. 
Lord  Macaulay's  History  of  England. 
Butler's  Lives  of  the  Saints. 
Stewart's  Account  of  the  Royal  Stewarts. 
The  Haddington  Collection  of  Royal  Charters. 
The  Coltness  Collection  of  Papers. 

In  the  preparation  of  the  lectures,  and  especially  of  this 
volume,  the  author  was  laid  under  obligations  to  the  Right 
Honourable  Lord  Belhaven,  Lady  Seton-Steuart  of  Allanton 
and  Touch,  Sir  Henry  Seton-Steuart,  Baronet,  of  Allanton 
and  Touch,  and  Henry  Houldsworth,  Esquire  of  Coltness, 
for  the  valuable  information  with  which  they  have  favoured 
him,  either  bearing  on  their  ancestry  or  their  respective 
estates.  In  availing  himself  of  this  opportunity  of  placing 
on  record  an  expression  of  his  gratitude  for  the  facilities 
which  they  afforded  him,  he  takes  occasion  also  to  express 


PREFACE.  IX 

his  gratitude  for  the  kindness  shewn  him  by  the  Rev.  James 
S.  Johnson,  of  Cambuslang,  Rev.  Dr.  Goold,  of  Edinburgh, 
Rev.  John  Kay,  Airdrie,  Rev.  J.  W.  M'Meekan,  Lesma- 
hagow,  Rev.  R.  T.  Martin,  Wishaw,  and  a  number  of  friends 
in  Wishaw  and  vicinity,  who,  in  a  variety  of  ways,  lent 
their  aid  in  contributing  facts  and  anecdotes,  which  have 
been  interwoven  into  the  narrative. 

After  the  first  lecture  had  been  delivered,  a  regret  was 
expressed,  that  it  did  not  contain  any  allusion  to  the  Origin 
or  Early  History  of  the  Town  of  Wishaw.  The  explanation 
is  a  simple  one :  the  Town  of  Wishaw,  recently  erected 
into  a  Burgh,  has  nothing  of  Antiquarianism  about  it.  It 
has  sprung  up,  almost  as  rapidly  as  one  of  the  numerous 
towns  in  the  American  and  Australian  continents.  The 
author  has  met  with  many  persons  who  had  a  distinct 
recollection  when  the  oldest  of  the  present  houses  were 
erected.  An  old  cottage  in  Main  Street,  marked  No.  66, 
situated  between  Wishaw  Parish  Church  and  the  Royal 
Hotel,  and  another  cottage  situated  on  the  south  side  of  the 
same  street,  and  marked  No.  119,  have,  on  the  lintels  of 
their  doors,  the  date  1777,  and  are  considered  as  being  the 
oldest  existing  houses  in  the  town.  They  will  speedily 
disappear  before  the  spirit  of  re-building,  which  has  recently 
taken  possession  of  proprietors,  and  which  has  been  so 
largely  encouraged. 


X  PREFACE. 

The  north  turnpike  road  from  Glasgow  to  Lanark  passes 
through  the  centre  of  Wishaw,  for  about  three-quarters  of 
a  mile,  and  forms  its  principal  street.  From  the  middle  of 
last  century  till  near  the  close  of  it,  the  cottages  on  this  line 
of  road  were  very  few,  and  were  chiefly  situated  on  that 
part  of  the  street  now  occupied  by  the  houses  marked  No.  223 
to  No.  237.  The  principal  group  of  houses  was  clustered 
around  the  farm  onstead  of  Fimmington.  They  have  en- 
tirely disappeared,  and  the  site  of  this  onstead — a  few  yards 
below  the  lower  of  the  two  ponds  which  supply  the  distil- 
lery— is  marked  by  two  very  aged  ash  trees.  "  The  lands 
of  Fimmington"  are  the  feudal  designation  in  the  title- 
deeds  of  houses  erected  on  the  portion  of  the  Burgh  which 
belongs  to  the  Wishaw  estate.  About  the  year  1790,  the 
prosperity  of  the  cotton  manufactures  in  the  west  of  Scot- 
land induced  a  number  of  persons  to  take  off  feus  along  the 
line  of  the  public  road,  which  the  superior  encouraged  by 
granting  them  on  favourable  terms.  The  older  feus  are  at 
the  rate  of  forty  shillings  sterling  per  acre.  Those  recently 
granted  in  the  Burgh  are  at  the  rate  of  £14.  per  acre. 

The  late  Dr.  Lockhart  of  Blackfriars  Parish,  Glasgow, 
was  minister  of  Cambusnethan  in  the  year  1794,  and  drew 
up  the  first  Statistical  Account,  in  the  Collection  published 
by  Sir  John  Sinclair.  In  that  account  he  mentions,  that 
the  line  of  a  new  village  was  then  being  marked  out,  with- 


PREFACE.  XI 

out  intimating  that  any  name  had  been  assigned  to  it.  It 
was  originally  called  the  New  Town  of  Cambusnethan, 
afterwards  the  New  Town  of  Wishaw,  then  Wishawtown, 
and  now  it  is  the  Burgh  of  Wishaw, — having  been  so 
constituted  by  the  provisions  of  the  Act  of  Parliament,  on 
the  4th  September,  1855. 

The  following  Statistics  may  be  deemed  interesting : — In 
the  year  1755,  the  population  of  Cambusnethan  was  1,419. 
In  1781,  the  population  was  1,562.  In  1791,  it  was  1,684. 
In  the  year  1794,  the  whole  population  in  all  the  villages  in 
the  Parish  only  amounted  to  409.  In  the  year  1801,  the 
population  was  1,972.  In  the  year  1831,  it  was  3,824.  In 
the  year  1841,  it  was  5,796.  In  the  year  1851,  it  was 
8,621.  In  that  year  the  population  of  Wishaw  was  3,271. 
Since  that  date,  the  population  of  Cambusnethan  Parish, 
and  of  Wishaw,  has  advanced  at  a  more  rapid  rate  than 
during  the  same  number  of  years  at  any  former  period.  The 
population  at  the  present  date  cannot  be  much  under  17,000. 

The  number  of  deaths  in  the  Parish  of  Cambusnethan  in 
the  year  1781,  was  only  12.  In  the  year  1791,  it  was  30. 
The  number  of  births  registered  in  the  year  1858  was  671, 
and  of  deaths,  231. 

In  the  year  1781,  the  sum  of  £66.  sterling  was  deemed 


Xll  PREFACE. 

adequate  to  the  maintenance  of  the  poor.  In  that  year  the 
Associate  Congregation  of  Daviesdykes  contributed  to  this 
sum  to  the  amount  of  £25.  5.  0. ;  and  it  does  not  appear 
the  poor  made  any  complaint.  In  the  year  1817,  the  sum 
raised  for  the  maintenance  of  the  poor,  from  assessment  on 
lands  and  heritages,  mortcloth  fees,  and  church-door  collec- 
tions, was  £85.  2.  0^.,  and  the  expenditure  was  £88. 19.  6. 
In  the  year  1844,  the  income,  from  assessments,  voluntary 
subscriptions,  mortcloth  and  proclamation  fees,  was  £245. 
14.  1J.,  and  the  expenditure  was  £264.  11.  0.  In  the  year 
1858,  the  assessment  amounted  to  £1,935.  15.  0.,  and  the 
expenditure  to  £1,835.  17.  0.  In  this  year,  the  number  of 
individuals  receiving  regular  parochial  relief  was  347,  and 
those  obtaining  occasional  relief,  152, — in  all,  499. 

In  the  year  1824,  there  was  no  public  conveyance  from 
Wishaw,  nor  could  one  be  obtained  on  hire  nearer  than 
Hamilton.  So  late  as  the  year  1840,  a  one-horse  coach, 
which,  from  the  name  of  the  proprietor,  was  called  "  Watt's 
noddy,"  was  run  three  times  a  week  to  Glasgow,  and  occu- 
pying three  and  a  half  hours  on  a  journey  of  fourteen  miles. 
The  Caledonian  railway  has  a  station  at  Wishaw,  from 
which,  at  present,  any  person  may  travel  north  or  south 
eight  times  a  day ;  and  stylish  vehicles  can  be  had  on  hire, 
at  five  of  the  principal  hotels.  Twenty-five  years  ago,  it 
was  difficult  to  obtain  a  little  writing  paper,  of  a  common 


PREFACE.  Xlll 

description,  at  a  few  of  the  grocers'  shops.  Now,  there  are 
several  booksellers'  shops  in  the  Burgh ;  and,  perhaps,  one 
of  the  most  striking  indications  of  modern  progress  is,  that 
this  volume  has  been  brought  out  at  the  local  press.  Pre- 
vious to  the  year  1836,  an  old  man,  engaged  by  the  inhabi- 
tants, carried  their  letters  to  and  from  Hamilton,  allowing 
him  one  penny  for  each  letter  or  newspaper.  Frequently 
he  had  not  more  than  half-a-dozen  daily.  In  the  above- 
mentioned  year,  when  a  post-office  was  established  in 
Wishaw,  the  letters  seldom  exceeded  a  dozen,  or  a  score, 
daily.  At  the  present  date,  the  letters  and  papers  which 
pass  through  the  post-office,  average  seven  thousand  weekly, 
and  there  are  three  deliveries  daily.  There  are  three  banks ; 
and  the  shops  are  fitted,  and  furnished,  in  a  style  which 
rival,  for  taste  and  supplies,  anything  to  be  met  with  in 
much  larger  towns. 

It  has  been  mentioned  that  Wishaw  was  constituted  a 
Burgh  in  the  year  1855.     The  rental  of  the  Burgh 

In  1855,  was  £5,000    0    0 ; 

11  1856,   "        5,804  11     6 ; 

"  1857,   "        6,634  12    0; 

"  1858,   "        8,740    0    0: 
at  which  rate  of  progression,  the  rental  is  likely  to  double 
itself  in  the  short  period  of  five  years. 


XIV  PREFACE. 

The  author,  having  restricted  himself,  has  left  many 
topics  of  local  interest  untouched.  There  are  ample  mate- 
rials to  employ  other  pens,  in  the  geology  of  Cambusnethan 
— its  agricultural  and  mineral  resources — its  literary,  educa- 
tional, and  benevolent  institutions — and  in  the  social  and 
moral  condition  of  the  miners,  and  labourers  at  its  public 
works,  who  have,  of  late  years,  so  rapidly  increased  the 
population.  He  commits  the  volume  to  the  intelligence  and 
candour  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Parish,  in  the  confidence 
that  his  efforts  to  arrange,  and  place  on  record,  so  many 
historical  facts  of  local  interest,  will  by  them  be  duly  ap- 
preciated. 

P.  B. 

United  Presbyterian  Manse, 
Wishaw,  June,  1859. 


CONTENTS. 


Antiquities  of  the  Parish  op  Cambusnethan, 
Introductory  Remarks  , 

Earliest  Historical  Reference  to  the  Parish     . 
Inquest  by  Prince  David  in  the  Twelfth  Century 
Connexion  with  the  Abbey  of  Kelso 
William  Finnemund,  and  Rudolph  de  Cler     . 
Cambusnethan  connected  with  Glasgow  Cathedral 
The  Titulars  and  Teinds  of  the  Parish     . 
Lands  belonging  to  the  Abbey  of  Aberbrothwick 
Etymology  of  "  Cambusnethan  "      .        . 

Nethan,  a  Pictish  King 

Line  of  the  Roman  Road  in  the  Parish     . 

The  Tumulus  at  Garrion 

Garrion  Tower  and  its  Episcopal  Occupants    . 
Bishops  Fairfowl,  Paterson,  and  Leighton 
•«  The  Auld  Toun  o'  Col  Ness  " 
Wincie  Well      ...... 

The  First  Church  at  Cambusnethan 
Disputes  about  the  Church  Lands    . 
Ruins  and  Remains  of  the  Original  Church 
The  Curates  previous  to  the  Reformation 
Abolition  of  Popery 
The  first  "Readers  "  in  Cambusnethan 
The  Ministers  after  the  Reformation 

The  Old  Bell 

The  Choir  of  the  Old  Church    . 

Disputes  between  Sommerville  and  Steuart  of  Allanton 

Removal  of  the  Church  to  Greenhead 


PAGE. 

1 

2 

3 

5 

ib. 

6 

ib. 

7 

8 

9 

11 

12 

13 

15 

18 

19 

ib. 

20 

21 

ib. 

22 

24 

ib. 

25 

26 

28 

30 


XVI 


CONTENTS. 


Dilapidation  of  the  Old  Church         .... 
Disputes  about  Seats  in  the  New  Church 
Notices  of  the  Ministers  in  Greenhead  Church 
Origin  of  the  Associate  Congregation  of  Cambusnethan 
Ralph  and  Ebenezer  Erskine  at  Daviesdykes 

Notices  of  the  first  Elders 

Notices  of  the  Ministers  at  Daviesdykes 

The  Revolution  settlement  unsatisfactory 

Notices  of  Mr  M'Millan  and  '  The  Reformed  Presbytery 

The  Reformed  Presbyterian  Congregation  in  Wishaw 

Mr.  Mason  and  his  Writings     . 

Mr.  Mason's  Successors     .... 

Origin  of  the  Relief  Congregation  in  Wishaw 

The  first  Managers 

The  Building  of  the  Church 

Steps  towards  having  an  Ordained  Minister 

Mr.  M'Intyre's  Ministry   .... 

The  first  Session 

Mr.  Brown's  Ministry        .... 
Other  Congregations  recently  formed 
Oldest  Houses  in  the  Parish 

The  Steuarts  op  Allanton. 
Origin  of  the  name  "  Steward  " 
The  Grand  Stewards  of  Scotland 
Sir  John  Steuart  of  Bonkyll 
Ancestry  of  the  Allanton  Family 
Allan  Steuart,  and  his  Descendants 
Notices  of  the  Ancestry  of  Lady  Seton-Steuart 

The  Steuarts  of  Coltness. 
A  Branch  of  the  Allanton  Family     . 
The  Founder  of  the  Coltness  Family        : 
Anecdotes  of  his  Descendants 
The  Arbour  at  Coltness  House 

History  op  the  Cam'nethan  Estate. 
Owners  of  the  Estate  in  the  Twelfth  Century 
Sir  Robert  Baird  found  guilty  of  Treason 

Sir  John  Edmonston 

The  first  Baron  Sommerville  of  Cam'nethan    . 
The  Extent  of  the  Estate 


CONTENTS. 


XV11 


The  Estate  Forfeited,  and  afterwards  Restored 

The  gradual  Disponing  of  portions  of  it    . 

Sommerville  of  Drum  becomes  Proprietor 

Sold  to  Sir  John  Harper,  Sheriff-Depute 

Sold  to  Lockhart  of  Castlehill   . 

Ancestry  of  Lockhart  of  Castlehill    . 

Sir  James  Douglas  and  the  Heart  of  Bruce 

Sir  Simon  Locard  of  Lee 

Origin  of  the  name  "Lockhart" 
Memoir  of  the  Belhaven  Peerage. 

Viscount  Belhaven 

Ancestry  of  the  first  Lord  Belhaven 

Origin  of  the  Armorial  bearings 

Notices  of  the  first  Lord  Belhaven    . 

Notices  of  the  second  Lord  Belhaven 

Notices  of  his  Successors  in  the  Peerage  . 

The  Barncleuth  Branch  failed  . 

The  Claim  to  the  Peerage  disputed 

The  Claim  decided  in  favour  of  the  Wishaw  Family 
The  Share  which  the  Parish  op  Cambusnethan  had 
in  the  Troubles  and  Sufferings  of  the  Perse- 
cuting Period. 

Introductory  Remarks 

Abolition  of  Popery 

Faithlessness  of  James  VI.  to  his  pledges 

Charles  I .  resolved  on  introducing  Prelacy  into  Scotland 

Awakening  at  the  Kirk  of  Shotts 

Cambusnethan  a  Sharer  in  this  Revival .... 

Mr.  Livingstone  and  Charles  II. 

The  Earlier  Martyrs  after  the  Restoration 

Mr.  James  Sharp  betrays  the  Church  of  Scotland  . 

The  Minister  of  Cambusnethan  made  a  Bishop 

Archbishop  Leighton  and  Sir  John  Harper     . 

The  Act  of  Indulgence 

The  Indulged  Minister  at  Cambusnethan 

Steuart  of  Allanton  and  others  Fined       .... 

Mr.  Vilant  Banished 

Mr.  Hugh  M'Kail's  Sermon 

His  Torture  and  Martyrdom 


PAGE. 

82 
ib. 
83 
84 
ib. 
ib. 
ib. 
85 
ib. 

87 


ib. 

92 
95 
96 
ib. 

97 


101 
102 
103 
104 
ib. 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 


XV111 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE. 

"Ephraim  M 'Briar"  of  Old  Mortality    ....  119 

Battle  of  Drumclog 121 

Paterson  of  Carbarns  shot  in  Glasgow  .  .  .  .122 
Sufferings  of  James  Gourlay  of  Overtown  .  .  .123 
Sufferings  of  Alexander  and  James  Gray  of  Cam'nethan 

Mains.                , 125 

Robert  and  William  Paterson  of  Kirkhill  shot       .        .  127 

Barbarities  at  Kirkhill 129 

Cases  of  James  Bryce,  Alexander  Smith,  James  Petti- 
grew,  Robert  Russel,  James  Forrest,  Robert  Gourlay, 
Margaret  Forrest,  Gavin  Muirhead,  Gavin  Laurie, 
John  Miller,  David  Russel,  Archibald  Prentice,  John 
Cleland,  John  Smith,  Robert  Steel,  William  Dalziel, 
George  Russel,  John  Marshall,  John  Torrance,  sever- 
al persons  in  Overtown,  and  Thomas  Paton  .  130-133 
Sufferings  and  Losses  endured  by  Sir  James  Steuart  of 

Coltness      . 134= 

The  Case  of  Walter  Steuart  of  Coltness  ....  136 

James  Steuart  and  his  Writings       .....  ib. 

Thomas  Steuart  obliged  to  fly  to  Holland       .        .        .  137 

David  Steuart  of  Coltness  sentenced  to  be  executed       .  140 

Arthur  Inglis  of  Netherton       ; 141 

Inscription  on  his  Tomb-stone 142 

The  Trees  at  Stockelton-dyke 143 

Our  Old  Church-yard 144 

Notices  of  Mr.  Donald  Cargill 143 

Mr.  Cargill,  at  Darngavel  and  Darmeid           ,  146 

His  escape  from  Watersaugh 147 

Darmeid  and  the "  Sanquhar  Declaration       .        .  ib. 

Mr.  Renwick's  First  Sermon  at  Darmeid        .        .        .  149 

Concluding  Reflections 151 

M'Crie's  Vindication  of  the  Covenanters        .        .        .  154 

Eulogy  by  Lord  Macaulay 156 


ANTIQUITIES 


PAEISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN. 


HISTORICAL  SKETCHES 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN. 


^ntirjui&g  of  %  Iparisfj. 

The  question  has  been  often  put — and  certainly  with  great 
propriety — "who  would  remain  unacquainted  with  the  his- 
tory of  his  own  country  ?"  Take  Scotland  as  an  illustration 
— a  country  which  has  produced  so  many  heroic,  talented, 
and  worthy  men — a  country,  whose  annals  are  crowded 
with  the  record  of  incidents,  the  bare  recital  of  which 
continues  to  touch,  and  awakeu,  the  finer  sympathies  of  out- 
nature — a  country,  whose  long  and  arduous  struggle  for 
independence  was  crowned  with  victory.  The  Scotchman, 
then,  who  had  within  his  reach  the  documents  in  which 
these  incidents  are  recorded,  and  yet  did  not  possess  them, 
or  remained  ignorant  of  them,  would  betray  not  merely  the 
low  state  of  his  literature,  but  the  low  state  of  his  patriot- 
ism. The  question  with  which  I  set  out  this  evening  is, 
"  who  would  remain  unacquainted  with  the  history  of  his  own 
Parish  fn    The  parishioners  of  Cambusnethan  who  are  still 

B 


2  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

11  a  acquainted  with  parochial  incidents,  historically  considered, 
have  their  apology.  The  materials,  which  are  requisite  to 
the  construction  of  anything  like  historical  detail,  are  not 
generally  accessible — they  have  hitherto  existed  in  a  very 
scattered  condition — they  require  a  considerable  amount  of 
patient  research,  and  no  small  amount  of  time  to  arrange 
them,  and  bring  them  into  anything  like  shape.  If,  then,  I 
have  had  the  ambition  to  attempt  the  task,  I  trust  it  will 
be  deemed  allowable,  when  it  is  balanced  against  the  desire 
which  I  have  all  along  felt,  and  the  humble  efforts  which  I 
have  all  along  made,  to  maintain  the  "  Wishaw  Mechanics' 
Institute"  in  a  tone  of  healthfulness,  by  having,  latterly, 
selected  a  subject,  which,  whatever  it  may  be  worth,  has  at 
least  a  local  interest  to  recommend  it. 

This  lecture  is  to  be  occupied  with  details,  which  properly 
belong  to  the  Antiquities  of  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan. 

My  researches  in  this  direction,  so  far  as  they  have  as  yet 
gone,  have  been  interesting,  and  satisfactory.  I  cannot,  as 
yet,  go  farther  back  than  the  commencement  of  the  eighth 
century  ;  my  earliest  fact  being  derived  from  the  Ecclesias- 
tical Annals  of  "  the  Venerable  Bede."  Subsequent  to  this 
date,  and  during  what  are  called  "  the  Middle  Ages,"  there 
is  occasionally  much  obscurity  in  our  national  records.  In 
consequence  of  frequent  feuds  among  the  nobles,  large  dis- 
tricts of  the  country  passed  from  hand  to  hand,  so  as, 
ultimately,  to  render  it  no  easy  matter  to  say  to  what 
division  of  the  country  it  belonged,  or  who  was  the  rightful 
claimant.  Even  the  great  boundary  line,  between  England 
and  Scotland,  was  not  accurately  defined.    Northumberland 


PARISH   OP   CAMBUSNETHAN.  6 

was  then  a  distinct  kingdom,  extending  so  far  north  as  the 
Frith  of  Forth.  It  is  generally  understood  that  Edinburgh 
had  its  name  from  Edwin,  a  Northumbrian  Prince.  About 
the  middle  of  the  tenth  century,  Cumberland  and  West- 
moreland were  made  over  to  the  Scottish  monarchy,  and 
were,  during  several  reigns,  regarded  as  part  of  the  Scottish 
realm.  It  is  worth  mentioning,  as  an  illustration  of  the 
divided  state  of  the  country,  that,  at  the  period  referred  to, 
Clydesdale  could  scarcely  be  said  to  belong  to  either  of  the 
contending  parties.  It  was  not  till  the  reign  of  Kenneth  III. 
that  Clydesdale  was  incorporated  with  the  then  Scottish 
kingdom ;  and,  not  till  the  reign  of  Malcolm  II.  that  the 
Lothians  and  the  Southern  counties,  were  identified  with 
the  Scottish  crown.  These  brief  notices  will  sufficiently 
indicate,  how  very  difficult  it  must  at  one  time  have  been, 
to  define  what  properly  belonged  to  the  crown,  or  to  the 
barons,  or  to  the  church. 

These  preliminary  observations  bring  me  to  a  definite 
period.  At  the  commencement  of  the  twelfth  century,  or 
about  the  year  1116,  David,  Prince  of  Cumbria,  instituted 
an  Inquest,  having  for  its  primary  object  to  ascertain  from 
the  testimony  of  the  oldest  and  wisest  persons  in  Cumbria, 
what  lands,  and  churches,  belonged  to  the  Diocese  of  Glas- 
gow. Clydesdale  was  then  a  portion  of  Cumbria.  There 
is  afac  simile  of  the  document  embodying  the  result  of  this 
Inquest,  in  the  "  Registrum  Episcopatus  Glasguensis,"  re- 
cently published  by  the  Maitland  Club.  It  contains  a 
minute  list  of  the  lands  and  churches  which  were  understood 
to  belong  to  the  bishopric.  Several  names  in  this  list  have 
puzzled  Antiquarians,  as  they  have  had  to  contend  with 


4  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

mistaken  readings,  in  twice -copied  transcripts.  A  name, 
almost  at  the  top  of  the  list,  has  particularly  engaged  my 
attention.  Owing  to  the  minuteness  of  the  character  of 
the  penmanship,  I  felt  a  difficulty  at  first,  whether  to  read 
it  u  Camcachethyn,"  or  "  Camnachethyn ;"  but,  on  compar- 
ing the  style  of  the  characters  in  other  parts  of  the  document, 
have  been  led  to  prefer  the  former  of  these  readings.  If 
this,  in  the  twelfth  century,  wa3  intended  to  represent  the 
district  in  Clydesdale  which  has  long  borne  the  name  of 
"  Cambusnethan"  the  discrepancy  in  the  orthography  is  not 
greater  than  in  other  cases,  about  which  no  dispute  now 
exists.  If  a  person,  unacquainted  with  the  sources  of  our 
national  monastic  literature,  were  asked  to  point  out  the 
locality  of  the  Abbey  of  "  Passeleth"  he  might  be  some 
time  in  guessing  whether  this  was  the  original  name  for 
Paisley.  If  a  person  residing  in  Cambusnethan  were  told 
that,  in  the  Cartularies  of  the  Abbey  of  Aberbrothic,  a  large 
central  district  in  the  parish  is  written  u  Allcathmor,"  he 
might  be  at  some  loss  to  explain  how  this  designation  came 
to  be  corrupted  into  the  modern,  but  less  euphonious  word, 
"  Aughtermuir."  Taking  the  circumstances,  above  narrated, 
into  consideration,  there  are  reasons  for  concluding  that  we 
must  identify  the  place  mentioned  in  the  "  Inquest"  of  Prince 
David  with  the  lands  of  Cambusnethan  parish.  The  proof 
may  be  considered  as  nearly  complete,  when  we  take  into 
account  that,  in  a  charter  granted  by  the  Abbot  of  Kelso, 
to  Walter,  Bishop  of  Glasgow,  in  the  year  1232,  Cambus- 
nethan is  mentioned  as  being  within  the  limits  of  the  Glasgow 
diocese. 

The  Abbey  of  Kelso,  one  of  the  most  magnificent  of  our 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNBTHAN.  O 

monastic  structures,  was  reared  and  endowed  by  the  taste 
and  piety  of  David  I.  The  Abbey  was  very  wealthy ; 
deriving  its  revenues  from  lands  in  thirty-four  parishes. 
As  an  acknowledgement  of  royal  liberality,  David  was 
canonized,  and  is  still  venerated  as  a  saint,  at  the  expense 
of  a  joke,  which  is  understood  to  have  originated  with 
James  VI.,  that  David  had  been  "a  sair  saunt  to  the  croun." 
During  the  twelfth  century,  William  Finnemund,  a  Norman 
Baron,  was  lord  of  the  manor  of  Cambasnethan,  and  being 
a  devoted  son  of  the  church,  he  bequeathed  to  the  Abbey 
the  titles,  and  other  rights  over  the  soil,  pertaining  to  him. 
These  grants  appear  to  have  been  subsequently  confirmed 
by  Malcolm  IV.  and  William  the  Lion.  Finnemund  was 
succeeded  in  the  manor  by  Rudolph  de  Cler,  who  confirmed 
the  titular  at  Kelso  in  the  privileges  which  his  predecessor 
had  bestowed  upon  him,  and  even  added  to  them.  On 
condition  of  being  allowed  to  have  a  private  chapel  in  the 
manor-house,  dedicated  to  Saint  Michael,  he  gave  the  monks 
a  right  to  grind  their  corn  at  Garrion  mill,  and  to  the  tithe 
of  the  multure  of  said  mill.  The  last  notice  of  Cambus- 
nethan  in  the  Kelso  Cartulary  is  met  with  in  a  list  of 
churches  over  which  the  Abbot  had  control,  and  to  each  of 
which  certain  privileges  were  granted  by  Pope  Innocent  IT. 
In  the  thirteenth  century,  the  church  of  Cambusnethan,  with 
its  tithes  and  other  ecclesiastical  revenues,  were  transferred 
from  the  Abbey  of  Kelso  to  the  Bishop  of  Glasgow.  It  was 
then  constituted  one  of  his  mensal  kirks,  and  continued  to  re- 
tain this  character  till  the  Reformation.  The  revenues  from 
particular  churches  and  church  lands  were  appropriated  to 
purely  ecclesiastical  purposes,  but,  in  every  diocese  the 
revenues  of  a  few  were  expressly  granted  for  the  Bishop's, 


G  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

personal  expenses,  and  especially  the  maintenance  of  his 
table.  They  were,  on  this  latter  account,  called  "  mensal 
kirks."  Cambusnethan  was  of  this  class.  At  the  Reforma- 
tion, Sir  James  Hamilton  had  a  lease  of  the  parsonage  tithes 
of  this  parish  from  the  Archbishop  of  Glasgow,  for  a  small 
rent.  After  the  Reformation,  when  the  temporalities  of 
the  church  came  to  be  distributed  among  laymen,  the  Duke 
of  Lennox  appears  to  have  obtained  a  large  share  of  the 
revenues  from  church  lands  in  Cambusnethan.  In  the  year 
1696,  there  was  a  special  grant  of  these  revenues,  by  an 
Act  of  Parliament,  to  Anne,  Duchess  of  Hamilton,  on  con- 
dition of  her  paying  the  yearly  stipend  of  the  minister,  as 
then  modified,  and  one  penny  Scots  to  the  crown.  The 
patronage,  however,  was  some  time  after  this  bestowed  on 
the  proprietor  of  the  manor  of  Cambusuethan.  At  the 
Revolution,  the  Duke  of  Hamilton  became  titular  of  the 
teinds  of  this  parish  ;  the  "  titular"  having  a  title  merely  to 
the  teinds  of  a  parish,  without  possession,  or  enjoyment  of 
them.  The  teinds  are  in  this  parish  distributed  among  the 
heritors,  according  to  the  valued  rent  of  their  respective 
heritages,  to  be  by  them  appropriated  to  the  payment  of 
stipend,  and  maintenance  of  the  ecclesiastical  buildings. 
According  to  the  Report  of  the  Commissioners  of  Religious 
Instruction  in  Scotland,  published  in  1838,  the  teinds  of 
Cambusnethan  are  set  down  annually  at  £490. 19,  3.,  and 
the  amount  of  unexhausted  teind  at  £212.  4.  2. 

While  on  the  subject  of  church  lands  and  revenues  in 
this  parish,  it  is  proper  to  notice  that,  between  four  and 
five  hundred  years  ago,  the  central  portion  of  it  belonged  to 
the  rich  lordship  and  Abbacy  of  Aberbrothic.     The  district 


PARISH   OF   CAMBQSNETHAN.  i 

seem3  to  have  been  originally  called  MacMorrens  Muir>  but 
in  the  fourteenth  century  it  was  called  Allcathmuir,  for  a 
reason  which  will  be  fully  explained  in  the  notices  of  the 
Steuarts  of  Allanton.  In  the  year  1432,  when  an  Inquest 
had  been  made  into  the  lands  of  Allcathmuir,  Thomas  Hay, 
Baron  of  Yester,  was  taken  bound  to  pay  to  the  Abbey 
forty  merks  annually,  and  half  a  stone  of  wax  on  the  eve 
of  the  feast  of  John  the  Baptist.  This  half-stone  of  wax 
must  doubtless  have  been  to  aid  in  keeping  up  a  sufficient 
supply  of  candles  for  the  religious  services  of  the  Abbey, 
and  serves  to  shew,  that,  at  the  period  referred  to,  the 
district  must  have  been  as  famous  for  the  rearing  of  bees  as 
it  has  latterly  been,  when  wax  was  fixed  on  as  the  com- 
modity which  could  be  most  easily  furnished.  In  the  clause 
of  the  title-deeds  of  the  United  Presbyterian  Church  at 
Bonkle,  in  which  the  situation  and  boundaries  of  their  pro- 
perty are  specified,  it  is  described  as  being  uat  the  bottom  of 
North  Brownhill  park,  within  the  Barony  of  Allcathmuir," 
thus  evincing,  that  upwards  of  four  hundred  years  ago  their 
property  was  church  lands,  paying  its  quota  annually  of  the 
half-stone  of  wax  to  the  Abbey  of  Aberbrothic.  In  the 
year  1476,  letters  were  issued  by  the  'Abbot,  appointing 
John  Hamilton,  of  Braidhirst,  his  justiciary  bailie  over  the 
lands  of  Allcathmuir ;  and  on  the  10th  February,  1528,  a 
precept  of  sasine  was  granted  in  favour  of  John,  Lord  Hay, 
of  Yester,  over  the  lands  of  Allcathmuir.  The  Lords  of 
Yester  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Marquis  of  Tweeddale,  and 
by  the  Tweeddale  family  Allcathmuir  was  feued  out  among 
sundry  heritors,  the  principal  among  whom  was  Steuart  of 
Allanton.  The  Abbey  of  Aberbrothic  was  probably  as  rich 
as  that  of  Kelso,  as  it  derived  revenues  from  lands  in  thirty- 


8  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

rive  parishes.  Wherever  they  had  lands  they  had  chapels. 
In  Allcathmuir,  there  was  the  "  chapel  of  Beuskiag,"  and 
although  the  ruins  of  it  have  some  time  ago  disappeared, 
yet  the  district  continues  to  be  distinguished  by  the  appella- 
tion of  "the  Chapel." 

An  inquiry  into  the  etymology  of  Cambusnetkan  is  rather 
interesting.  The  original  names  of  all  places  in  Scotland 
are  Celtic,  and  are  almost  invariably  descriptive  of  peculiar- 
ities in  the  external  character,  or  appearance  of  the  locality. 
The  parish  derives  its  name  from  the  manor  of  Cambus- 
nethan,  which,  at  an  early  period,  included  the  whole  district 
which  now  parochially  passes  under  this  name;  and  the 
manor  being  at  the  western  extremity,  where  the  Clyde 
curves  round  the  fertile  valley  land,  this  circumstance  must 
have  given  the  name  to  the  locality  which  it  has  so  long 
borne.  The  Celtic  word  u  cam  "  expresses  whatever  has 
a  bend  or  twist  in  it.  The  names  of  two  of  our  Highland 
clans — Cameron  and  Campbell — are  significant.  Cameron 
signifies  "the  bent,  or  hooked  nose,"  and  Campbell,  "  the 
crooked,  or  wry  mouth ;"  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that 
the  founder  of  the  Cameron  family  must  have  been  remark- 
able for  the  shape  of  his  nose,  and  the  founder  of  the 
Campbell  family  must  have  been  recognised  by  nothing  so 
much  as  a  peculiarity  in  the  figure  of  his  mouth.  The  Celtic 
word  "cainbus" — so  common  a  prefix  to  the  names  of 
places  in  Scotland — describes  an  extent  of  level  or  valley 
ground,  around  which  a  river,  or  stream,  sweeps  in  its 
course.  Cambusmore,  signifies  "the  large  bend,"  and  is 
the  name  of  an  estate  around  which  the  Teith  makes  one  of 
its  largest  curves.      Cambuskenneth,  gives  a  name  to  a 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  9 

ruined  Abbey,  on  a  neck  of  land  around  which  the  Forth 
has  placed  one  of  her  picturesque  links.  Cambuslang,  is 
u  the  long  bend,"  and  is  the  name  of  a  parish  in  the  lower- 
ward  of  Lanarkshire,  around  which  the  Clyde  takes  one  of 
her  long  and  graceful  sweeps.  Cambusnethan  signifies 
"  Nethan's  curve,"  or  bend.  Usher,  Archbishop  of  Armagh, 
who  wrote  on  the  Antiquities  of  the  British  Churches,  up- 
wards of  two  centuries  ago,  makes  reference  to  Nethan,  as 
a  saint,  eminent  alike  for  learning  and  piety.  He  refers  to 
the  Venerable  Bede  as  his  authority.  From  the  testimony 
of  Bede  it  would  appear  that  Nethan,  like  David  I.,  was  a 
royal  saint,  being  the  Pictish  Monarch  towards  the  com- 
mencement of  the  eighth  century,  having  his  royal  residence 
at  Abernethy,  the  ancient  form  of  which  name  was  4t  Aber- 
nethyn."  The  compiler  of  the  first  Statistical  Account  of 
the  parish  of  Abernethy,  mentions,  that  the  name  which  the 
Highlanders  were  accustomed  to  give  to  the  locality  was 
14  Obair^  or  "  Abair  Nadchtain*  which  signifies  "  the  work 
of  Neathan"  or  "Nectam,,>  and  this  Celtic  mode  of  pro- 
nouncing the  name,  may  serve  to  account  for  the  remarkable 
circular  tower,  the  most  striking  memorial  of  the  olden  time, 
in  the  district  around  Abernethy.  Nectanus,  or  Nethanus, 
the  Pictish  King,  contributed  in  no  small  degree  to  counten- 
ance the  intrigues  of  Popery  in  Scotland,  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  eighth  century.  Previous  to  that  period,  the 
emissaries  of  Rome  had  failed  in  bringing  the  church  in 
Scotland  under  the  Papal  yoke,  but,  by  flattering  the  vanity 
of  Nethan  that  the  Roman  ceremonials  accorded  with  the 
pomp  of  royalty,  they  prevailed.  As  yet,  in  Scotland,  the 
sanctuaries  were  rude  and  simple  in  the  materials  of  which 
they  were  constructed.     Nethan  was  induced  to  send  to 


10  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

Ceolfrid,  Abbot  of  Jarrow,  on  the  Tyne,  to  favour  him  with 
a  few  architects  to  build  a  church  after  the  Roman  pattern. 
The  request  was  granted.  Nethan  felt  that  he  now  had 
influence  in  the  church,  and  resolved  to  use  it.  He  was  the 
first  to  introduce  into  Scotland  the  observance  of  Easter,  and 
the  circular  tonsure  on  the  heads  of  the  clergy.  D'Aubigne 
refers  to  this  enslavement  of  the  Scottish  church  in  the 
following  terms  of  pointed  irony — "  A  royal  proclamation, 
and  a  few  clips  of  the  scissors,  placed  the  Scotch,  like  a  flock 
of  sheep,  beneath  the  crook  of  the  shepherd  of  the  Tiber/' 

At  the  commencement  of  the  eight  century,  Clydesdale, 
at  least  the  northern  portion  of  it,  belonged  to  the  monarch 
of  Abernethyn.  The  Clyde  was  probably  the  southern 
boundary  of  his  kingdom.  Without  waiting  to  question 
either  the  learning  or  piety  of  the  Pictish  Nethan,  we  may, 
I  think,  safely  compliment  his  good  taste,  when,  in  his 
peregrinations  through  his  dominions,  he  selected  for  his 
occasional  residence  so  warm  and  cozy  a  spot  as  the  western 
extremity  of  our  parish,  and,  having  done  so,  perpetuated 
his  name  in  this  locality.  The  silvery  Clyde — the  theme  of 
song  and  story — has  many  a  lovely  spot  upon  her  banks, 
and,  on  the  western  banks  of  this  parish,  long,  long  ago, 
when  few  sounds  were  heard  except  the  music  of  Nature — 
the  song  of  the  woods,  the  bleating  of  the  lamb,  and  the 
murmur  of  the  passing  river— the  royal  Nethan  occasionally 
sojourned ;  little  dreaming  of  the  changes  which  agriculture, 
and  engineering,  and  the  enterprize  of  the  human  mind, 
freed  from  the  fetters  of  Papal  superstition,  would  one  day 
accomplish  in  this  lovely  valley. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  11 

The  external  remains  of  anything  in  the  parish,  laying 
claim  to  high  antiquity,  are  not  numerous,  yet  are  worth 
noticing.  A  branch  of  the  Roman  road  passed  through  the 
parish.  This  great  highway  issued  from  the  forum  at  Rome, 
traversed  Italy,  pervaded  all  the  Roman  provinces,  and  was 
terminated  only  by  the  frontiers  of  the  empire.  When  the 
Romans  had  possession  of  the  southern  portion  of  Scotland, 
they  thought  proper  to  arrest  the  incursions  of  the  Caledon- 
ians by  a  wall,  running  from  Borrowstounness — almost  in 
the  present  line  of  the  Forth  and  Clyde  canal — to  a  point 
on  the  Clyde,  a  short  wray  above  Dumbarton  castle,  at 
Dunglass,  where  the  remains  of  a  Roman  fort  are  still  vis- 
ible, crowned  with  an  obelisk  to  the  memory  of  the  late 
Henry  Bell,  who  constructed  and  sailed  the  first  steamboat 
on  the  Clyde.  A  branch  of  the  Roman  road  started  at 
Dunglass,  came  upwards  towards  Glasgow,  and  entered  this 
parish  at  a  point  between  Shieldmuir  and  Meadowhead, 
passed  Wishaw  nearly  mid-way  between  the  town  and  the 
line  of  the  Caledonian  railway,  and  crossing  Garrion-gill, 
passed  through  Carluke,  onwards  towards  Carlisle.  Those 
who  constructed  this  road  seem  to  have  paid  little  attention 
to  engineering  difficulties.  Natural  obstacles  and  private 
property  were  alike  disregarded ;  and  acting  upon  the 
mathematical  axiom,  that  a  straight  line  between  two  given 
points  is  the  shortest,  the  Roman  road  generally  pursued  a 
straight  course.  From  personal  examination  of  remaining 
traces  of  it,  durability  was  aimed  at.  The  central  part 
consisted  of  strata  of  gravel  and  cement,  and  the  surface 
was  paved  with  large  stones,  and  near  the  principal  towns 
with  granite.  At  the  point  where  the  road  crossed  Garrion- 
gill,  a  branch  struck  off  northward — passed  a  short  way  to 


12  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OP   THE 


the  west  of  Newmains — crossed  the  Calder  at  a  hollow  part 
almost  mid-way  between  Murdoston  house  and  the  turnpike 
road  to  Stirling,  and  thence,  ran  on  in  a  direct  line  to  Castle- 
carey,  where  one  of  the  principal  Roman  forts  was,  and 
there  the  road  terminated. 

The  only  other  memorial  of  Roman  antiquity  is  the  tumu- 
lus, near  G-arrkm-bridge.  On  approaching  Garrion-bridge, 
the  attention  will  be  arrested  by  a  mound,  on  the  edge  of 
the  public  road,  marked  by  a  solitary  oak  tree.  When  this 
road  was  being  constructed,  several  years  ago,  there  were 
considerable  quantities  of  stones  around  the  base  of  the 
tumulus,  which  had  apparently  been  collected,  at  different 
periods,  from  the  surface  of  the  neighbouring  fields.  They 
were  deemed  very  suitable  for  road  metal,  and  the  process 
of  removing  them  for  this  use  was  proceeded  with,  when 
stone  coffins,  and  other  antique  memorials  of  a  bygone  age, 
appearing,  it  became  obvious  that  the  spot  had  been  the 
burial-place  of  warriors  and  nobles,  at  a  period  which 
carried  us  far  back  into  the  antiquities  of  our  country. 
These  discoveries  having  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  late 
Sir  James  Steuart  of  Coltness,  on  whose  property  the  tumu- 
lus was,  he  very  properly  gave  immediate  orders  that  the 
opening  in  it  should  at  once  be  filled  up,  and  no  further 
injury  done  to  so  very  interesting  a  memorial  of  the  olden 
time. 

In  proximity  to  the  tumulus,  but  a  little  way  to  the 
south,  and  near  the  margin  of  the  river,  stood  the  venerable 
tower  of  Garrion.  Of  late  years  this  tower,  and  its  antique 
appearance,  have  been  greatly  concealed  by  the  modern 


PARISH   OP   OAMBUSNETHAN.  13 

buildings  which  have  been  erected  around  it.  Previous  to 
the  repairs  made  on  it,  and  the  erection  of  a  very  tasteful 
mansion,  the  tower  itself  had  nothing  peculiar  to  distinguish 
it  from  the  small  baronial  towers  so  very  commonly  met 
with  in  the  south  of  Scotland  ;  many  of  which  are  fast  fall- 
ing into  ruins.  It  was  in  some  respects  a  place  of  strength, 
as  well  as  of  residence.  According  to  the  uniform  plan 
followed  in  the  internal  arrangements,  the  lower  part  was 
vaulted,  and  was  most  secure.  The  second  division  was 
one  large  apartment — serving  the  double  purpose  of  a  kit- 
chen and  dining-hall.  The  upper  division  contained  two  or 
three  small  sleeping  apartments,  reached  by  a  very  narrow 
spiral  stair.  The  date  of  its  erection  has  not  been  ascer- 
tained. Two  things,  however,  are  certain,  it  is  centuries 
old,  and,  in  the  days  alike  of  Popery  and  Prelacy,  was  the 
favourite  summer  residence  of  the  Archbishops  of  Glasgow  ; 
Camfcusnethan,  as  already  stated,  having  being  one  of  their 
mensal  kirks.  James  Blackadder  was  created  the  first 
Archbishop  of  Glasgow  in  1484.  He  was  succeeded  by 
James  Beaton,  uncle  to  Cardinal  Beaton,  from  1509  till  1539. 
He  was  a  cunning  intriguer,  especially  in  political  matters  ; 
and  as  he  lavished  a  great  deal  of  money  on  church  property, 
it  is  not  improbable  that  Garrion  tower  may  have  been  built 
during  his  administration.  Gavin  Dunbar,  who  was  present 
at  the  condemnation  of  Patrick  Hamilton,  our  first  Scottish 
martyr — who  gave  his  sanction  to  the  death  of  Kennedy  and 
Russell  at  Glasgow — and  who,  annoyed  by  the  effective 
preaching  of  Wishart  in  the  west  of  Scotland,  was  the  first 
to  suggest  that  the  civil  power  should  help  the  church  in 
putting  heretics  to  death — was  Archbishop  from  1539  till 
1552.    James  Beaton,  a  nephew  of  the  Cardinal,  succeeded 


14  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

Dunbar  in  1552.  During  his  episcopate — in  1560 — Popery, 
by  a  vote  of  the  Scottish  parliament,  was  abolished  as  the 
national  religion.  Beaton  immediately  left  Scotland,  for 
France,  carrying  with  him,  however,  the  valuable  gold  and 
silver  plate,  together  with  many  valuable  documents  and 
records  belonging  to  Glasgow  cathedral,  vowing  they  should 
never  be  restored  to  it  till  the  Catholic  faith  was  again 
triumphant  in  Scotland.  He  was  the  last  of  the  Popish 
bishops.  The  first  Protestant  Archbishop  was  James  Boyd 
of  Trochrig,  from  1581  till  1589.  Singular  enough,  and  as 
a  proof  of  the  many  inconsistencies  and  contradictions  in 
the  public  life  of  James  VI.,  he  restored  the  Popish  Beaton 
to  his  title  and  emoluments  in  1598;  but  Beaton  never 
returned  to  Scotland,  and  died  at  Paris  in  1603,  at  a  very 
advanced  age.  James  was  on  his  way  to  London,  to  ascend 
the  throne  of  England,  when  he  received  intelligence  of 
Beaton's  death,  and  at  once  promoted  Spottiswood  to  the 
vacant  see.  Spottiswood,  the  historian  of  the  Scottish 
church,  was  advanced  to  the  see  of  St.  Andrews,  and 
had  the  honour  of  crowning  Charles  I.  in  1633.  He  was 
succeeded  in  Glasgow  by  Bishop  Law,  from  1615  till  1632, 
and  Law  by  Bishop  Lyndsay,  in  1633.  Lyndsay  was 
Bishop  during  the  famous  General  Assembly  which  met  in 
the  cathedral  of  Glasgow  in  1638,  but  grave  charges  having 
been  instituted  against  him  before  this  Assembly,  and  proven, 
he  was  deposed  and  excommunicated.  When  Prelacy  was 
set  up  in  Scotland  by  Charles  II.,  in  1661,  Andrew  Fairfowl, 
who  had  been  Presbyterian  minister  at  Leith,  was  created 
Bishop  of  Glasgow.  He  must  have  been  the  occasional 
occupant  of  Garrion  tower.  Bishop  Burnet,  in  his  "  His- 
tory of  his  own  Times,"  characterises  Fairfowl  "  as  having 


PARISH   OF   GAMBUSNETHAN.  15 

been  insinuating  and  crafty — a  better  physician  than  a 
divine — scarcely  free  from  scandals — a  man,  also,  who  had 
not  only  sworn  the  covenants,  but  persuaded  others  to  do 
so.  It  has  been  told  of  him  that  when  a  person  one  day  in 
conversation  with  him  objected  to  swear  the  covenants,  be- 
cause they  went  against  his  conscience,  the  Bishop  replied, 
"  there  were  some  good  medicines  that  could  not  be  chewed, 
but  were  to  be  swallowed  down  without  any  farther  exam- . 
ination."  Fairfowl  was  succeeded  by  Alexander  Burnet,  a 
hater  of  Presbyterian  rule,  and  whose  favourite  maxim  was, 
44  the  only  way  to  deal  with  a  fanatic  was  to  starve  him." 
lie  was  the  chief  promoter  of  persecution  in  the  west  of 
Scotland  during  the  bloody  times  of  Charles  II. — a  meddler 
in  some  matters  which  did  not  belong  to  him — and,  for  such 
intermeddling,  came  ultimately  to  be  deprived  of  his  bish- 
opric. 

One  of  the  successors  of  Burnet  was  Bishop  Paterson, 
who  was  so  devoid  of  feeling  as  actually  to  offer  insult  to 
two  females,  as  they  were  led  to  the  scaffold,  saying  to 
them,  "  you  would  never  hear  a  curate  pray,  but  you  shall 
hear  one  now."  They,  however,  disappointed  both  bishop 
and  curate,  as,  by  agreement,  they  commenced  singing  the 
twenty- third  Psalm,  in  so  loud  and  firm  a  key,  as  utterly 
to  drown  the  curate's  voice,  as  he  proceeded  to  read  from 
the  Service  Book.  Paterson  was  a  worthless  man.  Sir 
Walter  Scott,  in  a  foot-note  to  "  FountainhalUs  Chrono- 
logical Notes,"  mentions,  that  to  such  an  extent  did  he  carry 
his  profligacy,  as  actually  to  introduce  it  into  the  pulpit. 
He  had  given  his  promise  to  a  lady  that  he  would  be  think- 
ing of  her  when  in  the  delivery  of  his  sermon ;  and,  in  token 


16  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

of  it,  ho  would,  at  a  particular  passage,  lift  his  bandstrings 
and  kiss  them.  From  that  day  he  was  nicknamed  u  Bishop 
Bandstrings."  So  very  odious  was  he  in  the  estimation  of 
the  Glasgow  students,  that  they  actually  burned  him  in 
effigy  on  the  public  street,  without  receiving  any  hinderance 
from  the  civic  authorities.  He  was  the  last  of  the  Glasgow 
bishops,  having  been  ejected  at  the  period  of  the  Revolution. 
He  then  retired  into  private  life,  and  died  in  Edinburgh  in 
1703. 

In  these  brief  notices  of  the  episcopal  proprietors,  and 
occasional  occupants  of  Garrion  tower,  special  mention 
must  be  made  of  the  immediate  predecessor  of  Paterson — 
Archbishop  Leighton.  He  was,  first  of  all,  Presbyterian 
minister  in  the  parish  of  Newbattle,  near  Edinburgh — -then, 
ten  years  principal  of  the  college  of  Edinburgh — then, 
through  the  craft  of  the  wily  James  Sharpe,  created  Bishop 
of  Dunblane — and,  about  1670,  became  Archbishop  of  Glas- 
gow. During  his  residence  in  Edinburgh,  and  previous  to 
his  going  over  to  the  side  of  Prelacy,  he  lived  on  terms  of 
great  intimacy  with  James  Steuart  of  Coltness,  then  provost 
of  Edinburgh.  His  occasional  visits  to  Garrion  tower,  and 
Cambusnethan  parish,  led  him  to  be  occasionally  at  Colt- 
ness. In  the  "  Coltness  Collection  of  Papers,"  published  by 
the  "Maitland  Club,"  there  are  interesting  records  of  dis- 
cussions between  Leighton  and  members  of  the  Coltness 
family.  They  did  not  forget  what  his  father  had  suffered 
at  the  hands  of  Prelacy  in  London,  nor  his  own  early  pre- 
dictions for  Presbyterianism,  and  on  some  occasions  they 
must  have  handled  him  roughly,  and  said  severe  things 
to  him.     Thomas  Steuart  —  who  afterwards  became  Sir 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  17 

Thomas,  and  who  suffered  severely  during  the  persecuting 
period — had  one  day,  during  dinner,  excited  in  the  bishop's 
mind  so  much  of  painfulness  of  feeling,  that,  on  returning 
home,  he  was  so  chafed  in  spirit,  as  to  have  said,  "  that 
young  man  Thomas  is  as  hot  as  pepper.  He  was  during 
dinner  never  off  this  turf  of  Scotland.  He  has  got  a  Pres- 
byterian crotchet  in  his  pericranium,  and  will  never  get  it 
out  again.  I  wish  I  had  stayed  at  home,  and  chewed  gra- 
jnel/'  The  case  of  Leighton  will  come  to  be  again  noticed, 
in  the  next  lecture,  in  connexion  with  the  troubles  of  the 
persecuting  period.  Take  him  all  in  all,  he  was  probably 
the  best  bishop  who  has  slept  under  the  roof  of  the  old  tower 
of  Garrion  ;  and,  when  I  sometimes  look  at  the  old  roofless 
structure  in  Cambusnethan  church -yard,  I  do  not  forget 
that,  as  Leighton  loved  retirement,  and  must  have  spent 
many  quiet  seasons  at  Garrion  tower,  his  voice  in  proclaim- 
the  gospel — and  he  was  highly  evangelical  in  his  views — 
must  have  been  frequently  listened  to  within  these  now 
roofless  walls. 

We  shall  now  proceed  to  another  object  of  antiquarian 
interest.  Striking  off  from  the  bottom  of  the  Main  Street 
of  Wishaw,  along  the  Cleland  road,  towards  Coltness  mill 
and  bridge,  and  before  crossing  the  bridge,  the  attention  of 
a  careful  observer  will  be  arrested  by  the  evidence  which 
the  bank  on  the  right  hand  bears  of  having  been  at  one  time 
exposed  to  the  severe  action  of  fire.  In  the  "  Coltness 
Collection  of  Papers, "  already  alluded  to,  some  of  which 
were  written  more  than  two  hundred  years  ago,  there  is 
particular  notice  taken  of  these  burned  banks,  and  their 
charred  appearance  accounted  for.  It  would  appear  that, 
c 


18  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

at  the  point  where  the  streamlet  which  flows  through 
Temple-gill  joins  the  Calder,  seams  of  coal,  of  considerable 
thickness,  and  affording  a  plentiful  supply  of  fuel,  jutted 
out.  That  particular  locality  was  called  "  Col  Ness  "  Ness 
is  the  old  Saxon  term  for  a  nose,  projection,  or  headland, 
and  forms  the  terminal  syllable  of  the  names  of  many  places 
in  the  kingdom — as  Gartness,  Inverness,  Blackness,  Sheer- 
ness.  The  inhabitants  of  Cambusnethan,  during  last 
century,  when  speaking  of  Coltness  house  or  estate,  in  their 
ordinary  conversation,  never  said  u  Coltness, "  but  invari- 
ably u  Col  Ness ;"  thus,  by  their  pronunciation,  keeping 
up  the  original  name — the  coal  point — which  ultimately 
came  to  give  a  name  to  the  now  extensive  and  valuable 
Coltness  estate.  At  the  point  above  referred  to,  where  the 
coal  projected  and  the  streamlet  joins  the  Calder,  it  would 
appear,  from  the  information  contained  in  the  earlier  papers 
of  the  "  Coltness  Collection,"  there  was  a  tradition,  that, 
several  centuries  before,  a  village  had  stood  there.  It 
was  alluded  to  as  "  the  auld  tonn  o'  Col  Ness."  There 
was  another  tradition,  that,  when  the  country  was  being 
invaded  "  in  Wallace's  days,"  a  party  of  English  soldiers, 
bent  on  pillage  and  devastation,  sacked  "  the  auld  toun  o' 
Col  Ness,"  and  then  set  it  on  fire.  The  coal  having  caught 
fire,  the  conflagration  spread  northward  along  the  bank 
fronting  the  river  Calder,  and,  after  a  lapse  of  between  five 
and  six  hundred  years,  the  incinerated  banks  remain  as  a 
record  of  devastation,  only  top  frequently  occurring  at  a 
period  when  Scotland  had  not  yet  succeeded  in  her  struggle 
for  national  independence. 

A  little  way  beyond  Coltness  bridge,  on  the  east  bank  of  \ 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  19 

the  C alder,  there  is  a  mineral  well,  which  was  dedicated  to 
Saint  Winifred,  and  which  has  been  vulgarly  called  "Wincie 
well."  Saint  Winifred  was  a  nun,  belonging  to  North  Wales, 
and  very  nearly  related  to  the  royal  family.  In  a  dark  and 
superstitious  age,  it  was  not  a  very  difficult  thing,  for  inter- 
ested parties,  to  attribute  miraculous  virtues  to  the  waters 
of  particular  wells  whose  waters  were  only  medicinal.  And 
as  a  particular  well  in  North  Wales  was  reputed  to  possess 
miraculous  virtues  through  the  merits  of  Saint  Winifred, 
many  wells,  in  various  places,  were  either  consecrated  to 
her,  or  regarded  as  sharing  very  highly  in  her  patronage 
and  curative  virtue.  The  "  Wincie  well'7  was  one  of  them; 
and  in  the  "  Coltness  Papers"  it  is  stated  that,  in  supersti- 
tious times,  oblations  to  the  Saint  were  tied  with  scarlet 
thread  to  the  bushes  around  "  Wmcie  well,"  as  an  expres- 
sion of  the  gratitude  of  those  who  regarded  themselves  as 
having  been  cured  by  the  marvellous  virtue  of  its  waters. 

Leaving  the  locality  of  "  the  auld  toun  o"  Col  Ness,"  we 
shall  now  pass  down  to  the  vale  of  Clyde—- to  the  site  of 
"the  auld  kirk."  The  earliest  notice  which  we  have  as  yet 
met  with,  bearing  on  the  ecclesiastical  affairs  of  this  parish, 
does  not  carry  us  beyond  the  middle  of  the  twelfth  century. 
During  the  reign  of  William  the  Lion,  the  barony  of  Cam- 
busnethan  was  granted  to  WTilliam  Finnemund.  The 
Abbot  of  Kelso  was  then  titular  over  the  church  lands,  at 
least  in  the  lower  part  of  the  barony.  At  that  period  it 
was  customary  for  the  barons  to  have  private  chapels  in 
their  manor-houses.  On  conditions,  which  have  already 
been  referred  to,  William  Finnemund  was  permitted  to 
have  a  private  chapel  in  his  manor-house,  which  was  dedi- 


20  HISTORICAL    SKETCHES   OF   THE 

cated  to  Saint  Michael.  It  is  very  probable  that  the 
accommodation  in  this  private  chapel  was  soon  found  too 
limited  for  the  necessities  of  the  district  and  that  it  became 
necessary  to  erect  a  regular  place  of  worship,  with  its 
accompanying  burial  ground,  a  little  to  the  westward  of  the 
manor-house,  on  a  portion  of  land  which  in  earlier  docu 
ments  is  called  "  Kirkfield,'*1  but  in  more  modern  documents 
the  lands  of  "  Carbarns."  This  is  the  more  probable,  as  in 
one  of  the  earliest  records  in  the  "  Cartulary  of  Kelso,"  and 
during  the  reign  of  William  the  Lion,  there  is  a  specific 
reference  to  to  the  church  ude  Kambusnaythan."  In  the 
same  "  Cartulary"  there  is  a  copy  of  a  charter  granted  by 
the  Abbot  to  Walter,  Bishop  of  Glasgow,  in  the  year  1232, 
in  which  Cambusnethan  is  mentioned  as  being  within  the 
Glasgow  diocese.  The  last  notice  of  Cambusnethan,  in  the 
u  Cartulary  of  Kelso,"  occurs  in  a  long  list  of  privileges 
granted  by  Pope  Innocent  V.  to  the  Abbey,  in  which  Cam- 
busnethan is  mentioned  as  one  of  the  churches  over  which 
the  Abbot  of  Kelso  had  supervision.  That  the  old  church 
of  Cambusnethan,  in  the  vale  of  Clyde,  was  also  dedicated 
to  Saint  Michael,  may  be  presumed  from  the  following 
circumstance.  In  the  Records  of  the  Lords  of  Council, 
under  date  10th  October,  1495,  there  is  an  entry  to  the 
following  effect.  The  Lady  Sommerville,  of  Cambusnethan, 
had  protested  against  John  Inglis,  the  chaplain,  having  any 
right  to  certain  church  lands  in  Cambusnethan  which  he 
claimed  and  enjoyed,  so  long  as  he  had  not  produced  any 
charter  from  the  King,  shewing  that  he  had  a  royal  grant, 
entitling  him  to  said  lands.  The  chaplain,  however,  pro- 
duced his  titles,  and  the  minute  of  council  then  runs  on  in 
the  following  terms :  "Anent  ye  foundatione  of  a  chappelancy 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  21 

of  Saint  Michaelis  chappel  of  Cambuskinethan,  one  ye  ferd 
day  of  Julii  in  ze  yere  of  God  im,  iiic,  lxxxvi.  yeris.  Item, 
a  charter  maid  be  AVilliam  Sommeraule,  Lord  of  Carnwath, 
of  ye  dait  of  ye  xx  day  of  Aprile,  in  ye  zere  of  God  i*o, 
iiiic  xxiii  yeris,  and  als  producit  a  sentence  definitive  gevin 
be  ye  officiale  of  Glasgow  aganis  Lady  Sommeraule  in  ye 
said  matter."  As  Baron  Sommerville,  of  Cambusnethan, 
was  then  probably  the  only  heritor  in  the  parish,  the  burden 
of  the  expense  of  the  erection  of  the  church  may  have  fallen 
upon  him.  The  date  of  its  erection  cannot  be  accurately 
ascertained.  Nothing  of  it  at  present  exists,  beyond  the 
wall  around  the  burial  place  of  the  progenitors  of  the  Right 
Honourable  Lord  Belli aven,  where  they  have  been  laid  for 
nearly  three  centuries,  and  the  outline  of  the  foundation  of 
the  western  portion  of  the  church,  covered  with  soil  which 
has  accumulated  for  the  last  two  hundred  years.  It  was  a 
place  of  Roman  Catholic  worship  long  before  the  period  of 
the  Reformation,  and  must  have  then  been  in  a  substantial 
state,  as  it  served  for  a  parochial  church  a  century  later. 
In  a  testament  executed  by  Allan  Steuart,  of  Allanton,  on 
the  12th  July,  1547,  the  name  of  John  Lyndesay  occurs  as 
curate  of  Cambusnethan,  and  as  one  of  the  subscribing  wit- 
nesses. On  the  21st  August,  1552 — eight  years  before  the 
Reformation  from  Popery  was  publicly  proclaimed  in  Scot- 
land— the  Lady  of  Cambusnethan  made  her  last  will,  and 
a  copy  of  this  testament  exists  among  the  "  Commissary 
Records  "  of  Glasgow.  One  of  the  subscribing  witnesses 
subscribes  thus, — u  Joannis  Lyndesay,  curatus  de  Cambus- 
nethan ;''  thus  intimating  to  all  whom  it  may  now  concern, 
that  John  Lyndesay  was  the  curate,  officiating  in  Cambus- 
nethan kirk,  at  least  312  years  ago.       The  godly  and 


22  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

enlightened  in  Scotland  were  then  awaking  from  the  slum- 
bers of  Popery,  and  were  daring  to  test  its  dogmas  by  the 
Scriptures  of  truth.  The  martyrdom  of  Patrick  Hamilton 
and  others — the  ministry  of  Wishart  and  Wallace,  and 
Mill  and  Knox — in  some  measure  had  prepared  the  Scottish 
barons  for  the  testimony  which  they  bore  against  Popery  in 
the  year  1560 ;  and  if  John  Lyndesay  was  then  alive,  he 
must,  in  that  year,  have  said  and  sung  his  last  mass  at  the 
altar  of  "  the  auld  kirk  o'  Cam'nethan." 

By  a  vote  of  the  Protestant  ncbles,  in  Parliament  assem- 
bled, Popery  was  formally  condemned  and  abolished,  while 
Protestantism  was  voted  in  its  stead — the  venerable  Lord 
Lyndsay,  rising  in  his  place,  and  alluding  to  his  extreme 
age,  declared,  "  that  since  God  had  spared  him  to  see  that 
day,  and  the  accomplishment  of  so  worthy  a  work,  he  was 
ready  to  say  with  Simeon,  c  Nunc  dimittis^  "  It  was  one 
thing,  however,  to  silence  and  eject  the  curates  and  the 
Papal  clergy,  but  another  thing  to  supply  their  places  with 
Protestant  ministrations.  The  resources  of  Protestantism 
in  Scotland,  to  meet  the  spiritual  necessities  of  the  nation 
at  that  most  critical  period  in  her  religious  history,  were 
very  scanty.  There  were  only  twelve  ministers  in  Scotland 
at  that  time  whose  principles  could  be  confided  in,  or  who 
were  deemed  competent  to  have  a  full  dispensation  of  gospel 
ordinances  put  into  their  hands.  Again,  not  more  than  one 
individual  out  of  a  hundred,  out  of  the  general  body  of  the 
people,  could  read.  Under  these  circumstances,  the  leaders 
in  the  Protestant  movement  had  to  devise  temporary  expe- 
dients. The  country  was  mapped  out  into  twelve  sections 
: — a  minister  was  appointed  to  superintend  each  section — 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  23 

and  the  whole  of  Clydesdale  and  Ayrshire  was  placed  under 
the  charge  of  Mr.  John  Willock.  Among  the  expedients 
which  the  emergency  occasioned  were,  the  preparation  of  a 
prayer-book,  to  be  used  in  public  worship,  and  the  appoint- 
ment of  duly  qualified  persons  to  be  "  readers "  of  the 
Scriptures  on  the  Lord's  day,  and  other  days  of  public 
worship.  The  prayer-book  assisted  "  the  reader  "  in  con- 
ducting the  devotions  of  the  people ;  and  when  individuals 
of  this  order  possessed  approved  gifts,  they  were  permitted 
to  give  "a  word  of  exhortation,  to  solemnize  marriages, 
and,  in  special  cases,  to  administer  baptism/'  The  interior 
of  the  sanctuary  required  to  be  re-modelled,  and  adapted  to 
the  new  modes  of  worship.  The  altar  and  other  pieces  of 
furniture,  pertaining  to  the  abolished  ritual,  were  removed. 
In  many  churches,  as  yet,  there  was  no  pulpit,  because  it 
was  very  seldom  the  superintendent  could  be  present,  or 
other  minister  competent  to  occupy  it  The  only  article  of 
sanctuary  furniture,  pertaining  to  the  Romish  service,  which 
was  deemed  worth  retaining  was  the  small  portable  reading 
desk,  on  which  the  bulkier  service-books  were  laid  during 
the  celebration  of  mass.  It  was  called  u  the  lectern?9  or 
u  lettern"  probably  from  the  French  word  lutrin,  or  the 
Latin  word  lego.  Even  so  late  as  the  beginning  of  the 
present  century,  it  was  customary  for  old  people,  especially 
in  rural  districts  in  Scotland,  to  speak  of  the  precentor's 
desk  as  "  the  lettern" 

It  appears  that  "John  Lyndesay"  was  the  last  of  the 
Romish  curates  in  Cambusnethan.  As  the  Act  of  Parlia- 
ment had  abolished  Popery,  it  also  ejected  him  from  his 
office  and  living  in  Cambusnethan,    His  place  was  supplied 


24  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

by  a  reader,  whose  name  was  John  Hamiltoune,  whose 
stipend  was  fixed  at  xxlbs.  and  "  the  thryd  of  his  vicarage," 
amounting  to  viK).  xiijs.  and  iiijd.  In  the  year  1507  he  was 
succeeded  by  William  Nassmyth,  whose  stipend  was  xxlbs. 
Mr.  Thomas  Muirhead,  son  of  the  laird  of  Lauchop,  was 
minister  of  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan  from  November, 
1603,  till  May,  1634,  in  which  month  he  died.  It  would 
appear  that  during  his  ministry  the  services  of  "  a  reader  " 
were  deemed  requisite,  as  in  the  copy  of  Mr.  Muirhead's 
last  will  and  testament,  engrossed  in  the  Commissary  Ke  • 
cords  of  Glasgow  in  November,  1635,  it  purports  to  have 
been  written  by  u  Mr.  Francis  Kincaid,  r eider  in  Cambus- 
nethan." Mr.  Muirhead's  successor  was  Mr.  James  Hamil- 
ton, who  belonged  to  the  Hamiltons  of  Broomhill — the  family 
from  which  the  Hamiltons  of  Wishaw  are  descended,  and 
was  a  brother  to  the  first  Lord  Belhaven.  He  was  admitted 
minister  at  the  old  kirk  of  Cambusnethan  in  December, 
1635,  and  was  minister  there  in  the  year  1650,  when  it  was 
resolved  to  abandon  the  old  kirk,  and  build  a  new  place  of 
worship  in  a  more  central  and  convenient  part  of  the  parish, 
on  the  lands  of  Greenhead.  Up  to  this  date  the  manse  had 
been  at  Kirkhill ;  but,  though  a  new  manse  was  as  much 
needed  as  a  new  kirk,  Mr.  Hamilton  objected  to  leave  the 
fertile  and  sunny  slopes  of  Kirkhill,  and  go  to  reside  on  the 
cold,  wet  soil  at  Greenhead.  An  excambion,  under  these 
circumstances,  was  effected  between  the  glebe  lands  at 
Kirkhill  and  equivalent  lands  at  a  place  then  called  "Croft- 
flathead,"  the  site  of  the  present  manse  of  Cambusnethan. 
Mr.  Hamilton  was  minister  in  the  parish  during  the  troub- 
lous days  of  Charles  I.  and  the  earlier  years  of  Charles  II. 
He  played  rather  a  prominent  part  of  the  game  in  which 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  25 

the  notorious  James  Sharpe,  who  became  Archbishop  of 
Saint  Andrews,  was  the  prime  mover.  The  part  which  Mr. 
Hamilton  acted  led  to  his  elevation,  and,  at  the  same  time, 
to  his  removal  from  the  parish ;  but  the  particulars  properly 
fall  under  the  topic  of  the  next  lecture, — the  share  which 
the  parish  had  in  the  troubles  and  sufferings  of  the  perse- 
cuting period. 

Mr.  James  Hamilton,  of  Udston,  who  died  in  the  year 
1 628,  and  who  was  the  near  kinsman  of  William  Hamilton, 
of  Wishaw,  seems  to  have  taken  an  interest  in  the  old 
church  of  Cambusnethan.  In  his  last  will  and  testament, 
he  left  in  legacy  "  ane  hundrid  pundis  to  buy  ane  bell  to  the 
kirk  of  Cambusnethan,  and  this  hundrid  pundis  to  be  warit 
be  the  sicht  of  Mr.  Thomas  Muirhead,  Broomhill,  and  my 
oy,  and  to  this  use  allenarilye."  The  will  of  Mr.  Hamilton 
in  regard  to  the  said  bell  was  faithfully  executed.  The 
" hundrid  pundis"  were  "  warit"  on  it.  So  long  as  the 
old  kirk  could  be  occupied  in  the  valley,  the  fine  tones  of 
this  bell  were  regularly  heard,  summoning  the  parishioners 
to  worship,  and  whenever  a  corpse  was  being  borne  to  where 
u  the  rude  forefathers  of  the  hamlet"  slept.  The  kirk  was 
then  very  old,  and  soon  became  so  uncomfortable  that  it 
had  to  be  abandoned ;  but,  in  Mr.  Hamilton's  latter  will, 
it  had  been  expressly  provided  that  the  bell  was  to  be  the 
kirk  bell,  and  "  for  that  use  allenarilye.'"  Consequently,  on 
the  erection  of  the  new  church  on  the  lands  of  Greenhead, 
the  bell  was  elevated  into  its  new  belfry,  and  there  it  swung 
and  chimed  for  two  hundred  years.  So  much  for  the  origin 
of  the  old  bell,  and  its  history.  When  the  church  at  Green- 
head,  in  its  turn,  became  ruinous  and  roofless,  the  bell 


25  HISTORICAL    SKETCHES   OF   THE 

continued  to  remain  in  its  place  for  years — an  interesting 
relic  of  the  first  Protestant  place  of  worship  in  the  parish. 
It  became  necessary,  however,  to  remove  it  from  its  old 
belfry,  much  to  the  regret  of  the  schoolboys,  who  liked  to 
scramble  up  to  it  and  cause  it  speak  out  its  fine  silvery 
tones.  It  was  laid  aside  in  safety,  but  where  it  now  is  few 
are  aware.  The  old  folks,  comparing  its  tones  with  those 
of  the  new  bell  at  Cambusnethan,  feel  no  hesitation  in  say- 
ing they  were  by  far  the  richer  of  the  two.  The  will  of  the 
testator,  however,  exists  on  record,  describing,  in  that  fine 
old  Scotch  phrase — of  such  importance  in  the  language  of 
Scotch  conveyancing — that  "  the  hundrid  pundis"  were  for 
a  kirk  bell,  and  "for  that  use  allenarilye" 

The  old  kirk  in  the  valley  having  been  erected  previous 
to  the  Reformation,  was  internally  sectioned  off  for  tire 
services  of  Popish  worship.  This  may  be  inferred  from  the 
circumstance,  that,  even  in  Protestant  times,  the  portion  of 
it  where  the  services  had  been  chaunted  continued  to  be 
called  uthe  choir."  The  Sommervilles  of  Cam'nethan  had 
been  in  the  practice,  for  ages,  of  burying  their  dead  "  in 
the  choir"  of  the  church.  About  the  middle  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  the  barony  of  Cambusnethan  became  the 
property  of  Sommerville  of  Drum,  and  he  came  and  resided 
on  it.  During  this  residence  one  of  his  daughters  died.  He 
was  about  to  bury  her  in  the  choir,  in  the  graves  of  his 
forefathers,  when  Walter  Steuart  of  Allanton  thought  pro- 
per to  take  steps  to  prevent  this.  There  is  a  high  probabil- 
ity that  there  was  a  good  deal  of  family  feeling  then  existing 
on  both  sides,  and  that  Allanton  thought  fit  to  interpose 
the  weight  of  his  influence  on  the  occasion  and  manner 


PARISH    OF   COIBUSNETHAN.  27 

referred  to.  The  reason  which  he  assigned  for  preventing 
Sommerville  from  burying  in  the  choir  was,  that  the  General 
Assembly  had  passed  an  Act  forbidding  any  farther  burying 
within  churches.  Sommerville  was  disposed  to  set  the  Act 
of  the  Assembly  at  defiance.  Allanton,  on  the  other  hand, 
would  not  resile  from  the  step  he  had  already  taken  ;  and, 
being  an  elder  of  the  church,  got  the  Presbytery  to  convene 
in  the  emergency,  and  thus  interpose  their  authority  to 
restrain  Sommerville.  The  Presbytery,  finding  that  the 
Act  of  the  Assembly  was  so  explicit  as  to  tie  up  their 
hands,  instructed  their  clerk  to  write  to  Sommerville,  signi- 
fying that  he  ought  to  respect  the  authority  and  injunction 
of  the  supreme  court  of  the  church ;  and,  knowing  the 
temper  of  the  man  they  had  to  deal  with,  affixed  to  their 
communication  this  emphatic  clause,  that  if  he  forcibly 
buried  his  dead  within  the  choir,  he  would  undoubtedly  be 
visited  with  the  highest  censures  of  the  church.  He  was 
about  to  set  the  Presbytery  at  defiance,  when  his  friends 
advised  him,  for  the  sake  of  peace,  to  submit.  •  He  did  so, 
and  buried  his  dead  at  the  east  gable  of  the  choir,  without, 
"placing  a  large  monument,  with  much  imagery  and  several 
inscriptions  engraven  thereon,  over  the  burial  place."  We 
shall  again  hear  of  this  monument,  and  of  the  misfortune 
which  befel  it,  as  a  further  illustration  of  the  bad  feeling 
existing  at  the  time  between  some  of  the  principal  families 
in  the  parish. 

At  the  period  to  which  we  have  now  advanced — the 
middle  of  the  seventeenth  century — the  Steuarts  of  Allan- 
ton,  the  representatives  of  a  very  old  family,  were  rapidly 
rising  in  wealth  and  influence  in  the  parish;    while  the 


28  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

Sommervilles  of  Cambusnethan,  once  the  principal  family, 
were  as  rapidly  declining.     Indeed,  so  very  reduced  in  ex- 
tent had  the  Cambusnethan  estate  now  become,  from  what 
it  had  at  one  time  been,  that  in  very  few  years  the  remaining 
portion,  chiefly  around  the  mansion-house,   was   for   ever 
severed  from  a  family  with  whom  it  had  been  for  the  previous 
three  hundred  years.     The  baronial  pride  of  the  last  repre- 
sentative of  the  Sommervilles  of  Cambusnethan  was,  how- 
ever, as  lofty  in  ideas  of  family  superiority  as  ever.     By 
every  possible  method,  he  endeavoured  to  claim  precedence 
in  all  things  over  the  house  of  Allanton.     During  the  Com- 
monwealth, when  the  fiscal  affairs  of  the  nation  were  entirely 
in  the  hands  of  Cromwell,  the  Protector  gave  orders  that 
a  new  rent  roll  of  estates  should  be  made  up.     This  was   a 
capital  opportunity  for  Sommerville  to  shew  off  his  rental 
to  advantage,  though  at  the  expense  of  his  pocket,  and   he 
availed  himself  of  it.     Steuart  of  Allanton,  on  this  occasion, 
displayed  more  worldly  policy.     He  could  explain  why  his 
rent  roll  shewed  a  lower  figure  than  that  of  his  Cam'nethan 
friend,  and  was  in  the  habit  of  slyly  remarking  that  his 
property  "was  situated  in  a  cold,  moorland  district,  and 
was  not  to  be  compared  with  his  neighbour's  at  Cam'nethan, 
which  lay  so  bonny  and  bield."    The  eleventh  Lord  Som- 
merville, uthe  gossiping  annalist"  of  his  forefathers,  thought 
fit  to  shew  his  spleen  against  the  house  of  Allanton  in  a 
most  unprovoked  and  unjustifiable  manner.     He  represents 
the  laird  of  Allanton  as  a  mere  ufeuar  of  the  Earl  of  Tweed- 
dale  in  Aughtermuir,  whose  predecessors  never  came  to  sit 
above  the  salt- foot,  at  the  laird  of  Cam'nethan's  table,  which 
for  ordinary  every  Sabbath  they  dined  at,  as  did  most  of  the 
honest  men  in  the  parish  of  any  account."     No  language, 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  29 

in  that   age,  could  have  been  more    contemptuous;    and 
serves  to  illustrate  how  maliciously  feudalism  could  express 
itself  with  its  expiring  breath.    The  success  of  the  measures 
which  Mr.  Steuart  had  adopted,  to  prevent  the  Sommervilles 
from  burying  "  in  the  choir,"  was  dexterously  followed  up. 
Mr.  Steuart  was  induced  to  take  another  step.     He  was  an 
elder  of  the  General  Assembly ;  and  in  a  petition  to  the 
Assembly,  in  the  year  1649,  he  set  forth  the  wretched,  im- 
passable state  of  the  roads  in  the  lower  part  of  the  parish, 
especially  in  winter,  coupled  with  his  distance,  and  that  of 
others,  from  the  parish  church,  and  craving  that  the  Assem- 
bly would  pass   an  Act   for    building  another  church  in 
some  convenient  place  beyond  Aughterwater — offering,  at 
the  same  time,  to  give  ground  for  a  manse  and  glebe,  while 
contributing  a  very  liberal  sum,  along  with  the  heritors  in 
the  upper  part  of  the  parish,  toward  the  building  of  this 
church.     He  was  obviously  stealing  a  march  on  the  laird  of 
Cam'nethan,  as  he  expected  the  Act  to  be  passed  at  the 
very  next  sitting  of  the  Assembly.      In  this,  however,  he 
was  disappointed.     The  Duke  of  Hamilton  was  titular  of 
the  teinds,  and  his  trustees  objected,  on  the  ground  that  if 
the  Assembly  granted  the  prayer  of  this  petition,  provision 
would  require  to  be  made  for  two  stipends,  which,  it  was 
alleged,  the  value  of  the  whole  teinds  would  not  admit. 
The  objection  so  weighed  with  the  Assembly  as  to  lead 
them  to  refuse  granting  the  prayer  of  the  petition.     Mr. 
Steuart,  however,  renewed  it  under  a  different  form.     He 
set  forth  that  the  church  was  becoming  old ;   and  being 
situated  at  the  very  lower  extremity  of  the  parish,  was  very 
inconveniently  located  for  the  parishioners  ;  and,  therefore, 
that  a  new  church  should  be  erected,  in  a  more  central  and 


30  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

convenient  position.  His  brother,  who  was  then  provost  of 
Edinburgh  and  proprietor  of  Coltness,  encouraged  him  in 
his  endeavour  to  obtain  a  new  church.  The  proprietor  of 
Cambusnethan  violently  opposed  this  measure.  The  church 
had  hitherto  been  in  close  proximity  to  his  mansion-house, 
and  along  with  this  circumstance  there  were  very  strong 
local  and  family  associations  which  would  cease  to  exist  if 
the  church  were  removed  farther  up  the  parish.  He  at 
length  gave  way,  on  condition  that  the  church  was  erected 
on  the  lands  of  Greenhead.  These  lands  were  not  now  in 
his  possession,  but  they  formerly  had  been  a  portion  of  the 
Oam'nethau  estate,  and  his  baronial  pride  gratified  itself  on 
the  bare  recollection  of  what  the  estate  had  once  been,  and 
conjured  up  visions,  pleasing  to  himself,  out  of  things  which 
had  passed  away. 

The  parties  who  undertook  to  execute  the  mason  and 
wright  work  of  the  new  church  were  John  Miller,  in  Water- 
saugh,  and  Alexander  King.  They  calculated  on  finishing 
the  work,  in  at  least  twelve  months,  for  about  three  thousand 
merks,  the  parishioners  carting  the  materials.  The  bargain, 
however,  does  not  seem  to  have  been  gone  into  in  a  very 
business  manner.  There  were  misunderstandings,  and 
heart-burnings  among  the  heritors,  which  greatly  tended  to 
retard  the  work,  and  occasion  additional  expense.  Instead 
of  three  thousand  merks,  the  new  church  cost  nearly  seven 
thousand  ;  and  instead  of  being  finished  in  one  year,  seven 
years  elapsed  before  it  was  fit  to  be  occupied.  In  the  papers 
of  that  time  it  is  stated,  that,  owing  to  long  exposure  to  the 
weather,  a  great  deal  of  the  wood  was  actually  rotten  before 
the  church  could  be  slated. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  31 

One  or  two  incidents  may  be  mentioned  to  illustrate  the 
state  of  feeling,  on  church  matters,  subsisting  among  the 
principal  families  at  that  period.  The  removal  of  the  church 
from  the  vale  of  Clyde  was  displeasing  to  one  parfc}%  and 
the  delay  in  completing  the  new  one  at  Greenhead  must 
have  irritated  another  party.  Age  had  'undoubtedly  rendered 
the  old  church  uncomfortable  ;  but  some  persons,  interested 
in  the  early  and  entire  abandonment  of  it,  thought  fit  to 
unroof  a  portion  of  it,  and  thus  expose  the  congregation 
during  the  inclemency  of  weather.  A  portion  of  the  coping 
of  the  east  gable  was,  under  cloud  of  night,  thrown  down, 
so  as  to  render  the  structure  still  more  ruinous ;  and  very 
unfortunately — if  not  designedly — some  stones  fell  on  the 
beautiful  monument,  with  its  "imagery,"  which  Sommerville 
of  Drum  had  erected  over  the  grave  of  his  daughter,  and 
broke  it  into  four  pieces.  This  was  a  very  untoward  event, 
It  revived  the  question  as  to  the  right  to  bury  in  the  choir ; 
and  the  result  was,  that  as  the  old  church  was  soon  to  be 
abandoned  as  a  place  of  worship,  Allanton  deemed  it  expe- 
dient to  discontinue  burying  his  dead  at  the  old  church.  He 
enclosed  a  tomb,  as  his  family  burial  place,  at  the  back  wall 
of  the  new  church  at  Greenhead.  When  the  old  church 
had  been  abandoned  as  a  place  of  worship,  the  Act  of 
Assembly  prohibiting  from  burying  in  churches  ceased  to 
take  effect  at  the  old  kirk  of  Cambusnethan.  The  Sommer- 
villes  resumed  their  right  to  bury  "  in  the  choir,"  and  to  this 
day  the  spot  is  the  burial-place  of  the  Cam'nethan  family. 
The  Steuarts  of  Coltness — a  younger  branch  of  the  house  of 
Allanton — retained  their  burial-place  "  in  the  choir."  The 
Coltness  tomb  was,  a  few  years  ago,  built  up,  having  re- 
ceived the  mortal  remains  of  the  last  male  representative  of 
this  distinguished  family. 


32  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

After  a  delay  of  years,  the  new  church  at  Greenhead  was 
at  length  completed.  Before  being  formally  opened  for 
public  worship,  it  became  necessary  to  allocate  among  the 
heritors  their  respective  proportions  of  church  accommoda- 
tion. Unexpected  difficulties  prevented  a  speedy  or  com- 
fortable division  of  the  pews.  The  heritors  had  now  for 
years  been  familiar  with  conflicting  views  and  interests,  and 
this  fresh  ground  of  variance  among  them  led  to  a  violent 
and  protracted  struggle.  The  proprietor  of  Coltness  had 
been  very  liberal  in  contributing  to  the  building  of  the 
church,  perhaps  more  so  than  any  of  the  other  heritors,  and 
on  this  account  he  considered  himself  entitled  to  much  the 
larger  share  of  church  accommodation.  But  Wishaw,  Green, 
Muirhouse,  Lamington,  and  other  heritors,  were  dissatisfied 
with  the  proportion  alloted  to  them,  or  with  the  particular 
position  in  which  their  proportion  was  situated.  The  grand 
question,  however,  was,  who  was  best  entitled  to  the  seat 
fronting  the  pulpit,  or  the  most  honoured  seat  in  the  church? 
The  patronage  of  the  church  being  in  the  Cam'nethan  family, 
they  very  naturally  considered  they  had  a  priority  of  claim. 
Steuart  of  Coltness,  as  has  already  been  noticed,  had  most 
generously  contributed  a  large  sum  beyond  his  legal  share 
in  the  building  of  the  church ;  and,  having  taken  a  peculiar 
interest  in  superintending  the  work  while  in  progress,  con- 
sidered that,  on  these  accounts,  he  was  entitled  to  preced- 
ence. Steuart  of  Allanton,  however,  had  been  the  first  to 
move  in  the  initiatory  steps  to  obtain  a  new  church,  on  its 
present  site,  and  had  carried  his  measures  in  the  face  of 
great  opposition.  Indeed,  but  for  his  zeal  in  the  matter,  it 
was  questionable  whether  a  new  church  would  at  that  time 
have  been  obtained,  at  least  at  Greenhead.     The  area  of 


PAKISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHABT.  33 

the  aisle  fronting  the  pulpit  had  been  claimed  by  Coltness, 
and  allocated  to  him ;  but  Allanton  claimed  the  gallery  in 
said  aisle  as  his  right,  in  acknowledgment  of  the  interest 
which  he  had  taken  in  obtaining  the  new  church.  Coltness 
was  the  last  to  accede  to  the  claim  of  his  relative,  the  pro- 
prietor of  Allanton.  For  the  sake  of  securing  peace,  to 
which  they  had  so  long  been  strangers,  and  which  was  now, 
certainly  desirable,  he  acceded  on  the  following  conditions : 
that  the  front  of  the  Allanton  gallery  should  be  kept  two 
feet  within  the  line  of  the  back  wall  of  the  church,  and  that 
the  front  pew  of  the  Coltness  seats  on  the  area  should  extend 
five  feet  beyond  the  front  of  the  Allanton  gallery.  The 
west  gallery  of  the  church  was  appropriated  to  the  Coltness 
estate,  and  the  east  gallery  to  the  Cam'nethan  and  Lam- 
ington  estates.  Such  unhappy  and  protracted  proceedings 
in  the  building  of  churches,  and  division  of  church  accom- 
modation, have  been  only  too  common  in  Scotland  since  the 
Revolution  settlement.  Even  Dissenting  churches  have  not 
been  altogether  exempted  from  the  injurious  influence  of 
similar  proceedings.  The  popular  element  in  churches  is  all 
the  better  for  a  safety-valve ;  and  though  the  superfluous 
steam,  in  escaping,  be  sometimes  noisy  enough,  yet  it  is 
well  that  it  does  find  vent,  as  safety  and  peace  are,  in 
ordinary  cases,  thereby  speedily  secured.  It  will,  however, 
be  always  a  matter  of  regret,  with  all  serious-minded  per- 
sons in  a  congregation,  when  two  or  three  individuals  allow 
their  private  and  personal  interests  to  over-ride  the  peace, 
prosperity,  and  edification  of  a  whole  church. 

The  minister  of  Cambusnethan  parish,  at  the  period  of 
the  erection  of  the  church  at  Greenhead,  was  Mr.  James 


34  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

Hamilton,  brother  to  the  first  Lord  Belhaven.  We  shall 
particularly  hear  of  him  again  during  the  persecuting  period 
in  Scotland.  In  the  year  1669,  an  indulged  minister,  Mr. 
William  Vilant,  was  minister  till  the  year  1684,  when  he  was 
imprisoned  by  order  of  the  Privy  Council,  and  obliged  to 
find  caution  to  remove  from  the  kingdom  within  a  month. 
In  the  year  1687,  a  toleration  was  granted  to  the  banished 
ministers  to  return  home.  Mr.  Yilant  availed  himself  of  it, 
and  was  moderator  of  the  Synod  of  Glasgow  and  Ayr,  which 
met  that  year  in  Glasgow,  in  a  private  house.  In  the  month 
of  October  of  that  year,  the  people  of  Hamilton,  of  the  Pres- 
byterian persuasion,  were  desirous  to  enjoy  his  ministry  ; 
but  at  a  meeting  held  at  Bothwell,  14th  February,  1688,  Mr. 
Vilant  u  adhered  to  his  acceptance  of  the  call  of  the  parish 
of  Cambusnethan.''  The  Synod,  which  met  at  Paisley  on 
the  first  Tuesday  of  April,  confirmed  Mr.  Vilant  in  his  re- 
solution to  remain  at  Cambusnethan.  His  name  appears  on 
the  records  of  the  Presbytery  of  Hamilton  for  the  last  time, 
on  the  21st  April,  1791.  After  this  he  was  installed  Pro- 
fessor of  Divinity  at  St.  Andrews,  which  office  he  continued 
to  occupy  during  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

On  the  31st  May,  1692,  a  call  was  given  by  the  parish  of 
Cambusnethan  in  favour  of  Mr.  John  Muirhead,  preacher 
of  the  gospel,  who  was  ordained  on  the  1st  September  there- 
after, and,  after  a  ministry  of  forty-one  years,  died  in  the 
year  1733.  He  was  buried  in  the  old  church-yard,  and  the 
inscription  on  his  tombstone  is  now  scarcely  legible. 

On  the  15th  January,  1734,  "Mr.  Lockhart  of  Cam- 
busnethan requested  the  Presbytery  to  indke  Mr,  Craig, 


PARISH   OP   CAMBUSNETHAN.  35 

preacher  of  the  gospel,  Glasgow,  to  preach  before  them  at 
the  next  meeting."  The  opposition  in  the  parish  of  Cam- 
busnethan  to  Mr.  Craig  was  very  formidable,  as  he  seems  to 
have  been  unacceptable  to  the  people.  It  led  to  an  appeal 
to  the  General  Assembly,  by  several  heritors  and  elders. 
The  Assembly  having  heard  the  appeal,  "  remitted  to  the 
Presbytery  of  Hamilton,  to  proceed  in  the  settlement  of  the 
parish  as  they  shall  judge  best  for  the  edification  of  the 
congregation."  The  parish  continued  in  a  very  agitated 
state  till  the  25th  January,  1737,  when  the  Presbytery  at 
last  agreed  to  proceed  to  admit  Mr.  Craig.  Seven  of  the 
elders  gave  in  a  protestation  to  the  Presbytery ;  but  Mr. 
Craig  was  ordained  on  the  20th  April  of  that  year ;  and, 
eventually,  the  protesting  elders,  refusing  to  resile  from  the 
grounds  of  their  protestation  against  Mr.  Craig,  who  had 
been  intruded  upon  them  as  their  pastor,  were  declared  to 
be  no  longer  elders  in  said  parish.  These  seven  elders,  out 
of  a  session  of  nine  members,  were  John  Bell,  David  Downie, 
Robert  Keddar,  Alexander  Cleland,  James  Prentice,  George 
Russel,  and  John  Steill.  The  step  which  they  were  neces- 
sitated to  take,  along  with  all  who  adhered  to  them,  and 
the  results  which  followed  their  having  taken  it,  will  be  in 
due  time  narrated. 

Mr.  Craig's  incumbency  at  Cambusnethan  was  brief;  as 
on  the  1st  January,  1738,  a  call  in  his  favour  was  laid  on 
the  table  of  the  Presbytery  of  Hamilton,  by  the  magistrates 
of  Glasgow,  town  council,  and  general  session,  as  well  as 
from  the  particular  session  of  "the  middle  quarter  of  Glas- 
gow," to  be  their  minister.  Mr.  Craig  accepted  the  call  on 
the  28th  February,  1738. 


36  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

On  the  28th  November,  1738,  a  formal  and  largely  sub- 
scribed call  was  given  to  Mr.  Thomas  Cleland,  and  he  was 
ordained  at  Cambusnethan  on  the  1st  March,  1739.  He 
continued  in  the  parish  till  1757. 

Mr.  Cleland  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Gray,  a  minister  of 
very  popular  talents  ;  but,  after  a  very  brief  ministry,  cir- 
cumstances led  to  his  demitting  his  charge.  Mr.  Gray  was 
succeeded  by  Mr.  Howieson,  whose  ministry,  owing  to  ill 
health,  was  continued  only  a  few  years. 

The  successor  of  Mr.  Howieson  was  Mr.  Kankin,  who 
was  ordained  on  the  17th  August,  1781,  and  removed  to  the 
North-West  Church,  Glasgow,  on  the  8th  September,  1785. 

Mr.  Kankin  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Lockhart,  who  was 
ordained  at  Cambusnethan  on  the  28th  June,  1786,  and 
was  removed  to  Blackfriars  Church,  Glasgow,  on  the  30th 
September,  1796. 

Mr.  Lockhart  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  John  Thomson,  on 
the  13th  July,  1797,  who  was  translated  to  Dairy  on  the 
18th  November,  1802. 

Mr.  Thomson  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Archibald  Living- 
stone, who  was  ordained  on  the  13th  May,  1803,  and  died 
on  the  26th  January,  1852. 

Mr.  Robert  Shaw  Hutton,  the  present  minister  of  the 
parish,  was  admitted  on  the  17th  April,  1851. 


The  seven  elders,  who,  by  a  deed  of  Presbytery,  had 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  37 

been  extruded  from  office  in  the  National  Church,  on  the 
28th  June,  1737,  felt  constrained,  under  the  circumstances, 
to  withdraw  from  the  communion  of  that  church.  They 
found  many  adherents  to  this  step;  and,  after  prayerful 
consideration  of  the  path  of  duty,  applied  for  sermon  from 
the  Associate  Presbytery  on  the  1 2th  day  of  the  following 
month.  This  infant  Presbytery,  which  had  been  in  exist- 
ence for  little  more  than  three  years,  had  on  its  table,  in 
1737,  petitions  for  sermon  from  no  fewer  than  upwards  of 
seventy  places.  Cambusnethan  was  one  of  them.  The 
Presbytery,  unable  as  yet,  from  the  fewness  of  their  num- 
bers, to  furnish  anything  like  a  regular  supply  of  gospel 
ordinances  to  so  many  applicants,  adopted  the  expedient  of 
occasionally  sending  out  two  and  two  of  their  number  on  an 
extensive  mission  over  the  country,  at  the  same  time  exhort- 
ing the  petitioners  to  form  themselves  into  "  praying  and  cor- 
responding societies,''  thus  maintaining  fellowship  in  private 
devotional  exercises.  The  Kev.  Ealph  Erskine,  has  the 
following  entries  in  his  diary : — 

"Dunfermline,  July  12th,  1737. — We  had  a  Presbytery 
in  the  church — we  were  appointed,  two  by  two,  to  go  and 
keep  a  day  of  fasting  among  the  oppressed  people.  My 
brother  and  I  were  appointed  for  Cambusnethan,  the  first 
Wednesday  of  August  coming." 

This  appointment  was  duly  intimated  to  the  people  of 
Cambusnethan,  and  reported  by  them  in  the  surrounding 
districts.  The  first  Wednesday  in  August  fell  on  the  3d 
day  of  that  month.  It  happened  to  be  the  day  of  an  annual 
fair  at  the  Kirk  of  Shotts,  for  trafficing  in  what  were  then 
called  "  soft  goods"  when  both  buyers  and  sellers  collected 


38  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

from  great  distances.  The  morning  was  a  bright  one,  and 
the  market  likely  to  be  a  good  one ;  but  at  an  early  hour, 
and  when  business  had  scarcely  commenced,  the  tidings 
circulated,  with  almost  telegraphic  speed,  that  Ralph  and 
Ebenezer  Erskine  were  to  preach  at  Daviesdykes,  in  Cam- 
busnethan,  at  12  o'clock.  Business  was  at  once  arrested, 
and  the  people  departed  from  the  market- stance  in  crowds. 
It  became  a  descriptive  phrase,  in  speaking  of  the  breaking 
up  of  the  fair,  to  represent  it  as  resembling  "  the  skailin  oy 
a  kirk;"  but  to  a  certainty  it  was  "  the  skailin  d1  the  fair" 
as  the  sellers  were  so  chagrined  at  the  loss  of  their  market 
that,  out  of  revenge,  they  resolved  not  to  return  on  the  next 
occasion  of  the  fair.  They  kept  their  resolution.  Next 
year  the  fair  was  a  very  unsuccessful  one,  and  having  for  a 
few  years  lingered  out  a  feeble  existence,  it  was  then  given 
up.  The  next  entry  in  Ralph  Erskine's  diary,  bearing  upon 
the  cause  at  Cambusnethan,  is  in  the  following  terms  : — 

"  Wednesday \  Aug.  3. — I  preached  in  the  tent  with  my 
brother  at  Cambusnethan,  where  was  a  very  great  auditory. 
I  had  the  forenoon ;  and  after  reading  the  causes  of  the  fast, 
prefacing  and  praying,  I  preached  on  Jerem.  xiii.  16,  "  Give 
glory  to  the  Lord  your  God,  before  he  cause  darkness.'' 
Afterwards  baptized  about  twenty -six  children.  We  were 
very  kindly  entertained  by  the  people  in  that  place,  and 
they  seemed  to  be  refreshed  by  the  fast-day's  work — the 
Lord  helping  in  some  measure  therein.  We  kept  a  session 
next  day  with  the  elders." 

Two  years  after  this,  Mr.  Ralph  Erskine  and  Mr.  Thom- 
son of  Burntisland  paid  a  visit  to  Cambusnethan.  Mr. 
Erskine  has  the  following  notes  in  his  diary : — 


PAKISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  39 

"  Friday,  Sept  14,  1739. — Mr.  Thomson  and  I  went  to 
the  parish  of  Cambusnethan,  and  next  day  to  a  place  therein 
called  Daviesdykes,  where  we  staid  all  Saturday  and  Sab- 
bath night. 

"Sabbath,  Sept.  16,  1739. — We  preached  in  Cambus- 
nethan parish.  My  text  was,  "  Unto  you  is  the  word  of 
this  salvation  sent."  The  auditory  was  considerably  numer- 
ous, from  a  great  many  places.  I  was  helped  and  strength- 
ened." 

This  is  a  proper  place  to  introduce,  for  preservation,  a 
brief  notice  of  the  Seven  Elders  who  performed  the  more 
active  part  of  the  work  in  the  originating  of  the  Secession 
congregation.  The  senior  member  was  John  Bell,  resident 
proprietor  of  Aughterhead,  then  in  his  88th  year,  having 
been  born  in  the  year  1649.  He  was  ordained  to  the  elder- 
ship in  the  year  1699,  and  did  not  long  survive  the  formation 
of  the  Associate  congregation.  He  was  succeeded  in  office 
by  his  son  James,  who  was  ordained  in  November,  1751, 
and  who  died  in  1757. 

David  Downie,  who  subscribed  the  protest  against  Mr. 
Craig's  settlement,  and  who  took  the  more  prominent  part 
in  opposing  that  settlement,  was  born  at  Cathkers,  near 
Allanton,  in  the  year  1697.  Several  generations  of  the 
same  name  had  their  residence  at  Cathkers.  It  was  in  the 
house  of  a  relative — James  Downie,  at  Easter  Kedmyre — 
that  the  seven  elders  met  to  draw  up  and  subscribe  their 
protestation,  and  gave  David  Downie  his  commission  to 
lodge  and  support  the  same  before  the  Presbytery  of  Ham- 
ilton. 


40  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF  THE 

Robert  Keddar,  proprietor  of  a  large  portion  of  the  land3 
of  Daviesdykes,  gave  in  a  separate  protestation  in  his  own 
name,  as  an  heritor  in  the  parish,  and  in  the  name  of  several 
other  heritors  and  life-renters.  It  was  on  his  estate  the 
first  place  of  worship  was  erected.  He  was  the  Synod  elder 
at  the  memorable  Synod  at  which  the  lawfulness  of  swearing 
the  Burgess  oath  led  to  a  schism.  He  died  in  August,  1750. 
In  the  session  records  there  is  the  following  entry:  "  August 
19,  1750.  For  the  best  mortcloth  to  Robert  Keddar,  por- 
tioner  of  Daviesdykes,  £3.  12s.  Scots." 

Andrew  Cleland  resided  in  Overtown.  His  father  had 
been  an  elder  in  the  parish  in  the  year  1682,  and  his  own 
ordination  must  have  been  sometime  between  1703  and 
1739  ;  during  which  period  no  session  records  are  now  in 
existence,  to  enable  us  to  ascertain  the  duration  of  his 
eldership.  But  as  his  name  appears,  for  the  last  time,  in 
minute  of  July,  1760,  he  must  have  officiated  as  an  elder  in 
the  Associate  congregation  upwards  of  twenty  years. 

James  Prentice  was  a  portioner  in  Stane,  and  was  the 
son  of  Archibald  Prentice.  He  was  baptized  April  15, 
1683.  His  father  was  one  of  the  sufferers  in  the  troubles 
of  the  persecuting  period,  as  shall  be  noticed  in  its  proper 
place.  His  name  appears  on  a  minute  of  session  1st  Feb- 
ruary, 1757?  shewing  that  he  had  served  in  the  eldership  at 
Daviesdykes  at  least  twenty  years. 

-  George  Russel  in  Stane  was  ordained  to  the  eldership  on 
the  18th  July,  1699.  He  also,  like  James  Prentice,  be- 
longed to  a  family  who  suffered  for  conscience  sake.     His 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  41 

father,  David  Russel —  as  we  shall  afterwards  have  to 
record — was  for  some  time  a  prisoner  in  Edinburgh,  and 
was  severely  fined  in  the  Tear  1684.  George  Russel  had  a 
son,  David,  who  was  ordained  an  elder  in  1765,  and  who 
was  the  father  of  the  late  Rev.  George  Russel  of  the  Asso- 
ciate congregation,  Dairy. 

John  Steill,  the  last  name  on  the  list,  was  the  eldest  son 
of  James  Steill  of  Liquo.  The  date  and  precise  duration  of 
his  eldership  have  not  been  ascertained.  His  name  appears, 
for  the  last  time,  on  the  minutes  of  session  under  date 
December  9,  1744.     He  died  January  7,  1745. 

In  consequence  of  an  unpopular  settlement  in  the  parish 
of  Shotts  in  the  year  1738,  two  of  the  elders  in  said  parish 
seceded,  viz.,  John  Wardrop  in  Forrestburn  and  James 
"Walker  of  Halkwoodburn,  and  joined  the  session  of  the 
Associate  congregation  of  Daviesdykes.  For  a  similar 
reason,  James  Forrest  in  Sandyland-gate,  parish  of  Carluke, 
who  had  been  ordained  in  April,  1723,  seceded,  and  joined 
the  session  and  congregation  at  Daviesdykes. 

When  a  congregation  had  been  regularly  organised  at 
Daviesdykes,  they  immediately  set  about  erecting  a  suitable 
place  of  worship.  Having  feued  a  piece  of  ground  from 
Robert  Keddar  of  Daviesdykes,  they  erected  a  place  of 
worship  in  the  year  1740,  which  they  found  it  necessary  to 
rebuild  in  the  year  1780.  They  next  proceeded  to  obtain  a 
settled  pastor.  The  minute  of  Presbytery  under  date  July 
22,  1740,  has  the  following  entry:  "The  Rev.  James  Mail 
reported  that  he  had  preached  and  baptized  at  Cambusnethan 


42  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

on  the  second  Wednesday  of  July,  but  that  he  had  not 
moderated  a  call ;  and  offered  his  reasons,  which  were 
sustained.1'  The  congregation  having  repeatedly  renewed 
their  petition  for  a  moderation,  the  Presbytery,  at  a  meeting 
in  Perth,  September  22,  1741,  "considering  what  modera- 
tions they  can  grant  at  this  time,"  appointed  the  Kev. 
Andrew  Clerkson  to  moderate  in  a  call  at  Cambusnethan, 
on  the  second  Wednesday  of  November  next.'1  On  said 
day — 17th  November,  1741 — Mr.  Clerkson,  after  sermon, 
moderated  in  a  call,  which  was  unanimously  given  to  Mr. 
David  Horn.  His  ordination  took  place  at  the  "  Moorkirk 
of  Cambusnethan,"  September  29, 1742.  Mr.  Fisher  preach- 
ed the  ordination  sermon  from  Isaiah  xxxviii.  14. 

Mr.  Horn's  ministry  lasted  for  twenty- six  years.  In  the 
year  1768,  he  was  constrained,  by  the  infirmities  incident 
to  advanced  age,  to  demit  his  charge  of  uthe  congregation. 
He  was  a  well-informed  theologian,  and  acceptable  preacher 
of  the  gospel.  He  was  moderator  of  the  Synod  which  met 
at  Stirling  in  April,  1748,  and  is  understood  to  have  pre- 
pared the  answers  explanatory  of  several  questions  in  the 
u Synod's  Catechism''  on  the  fourth  commandment.  He 
spent  his  last  years  on  a  small  property  which  he  had  in 
Kinross-shire. 

In  this  necessarily  brief  notice  of  his  ministry,  it  is  proper 
to  advert  to  an  office-bearer  in  his  church,  whose  memory 
to  this  day  continues  to  be  highly  and  deservedly  revered — 
Mr.  Archibald  Cuthbertson.  He  was  school-master  at 
Muiryett,  precentor  to  the  congregation,  and  session-clerk, 
for  the  long  period  of  thirty-nine  years.     The  fulness  and 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSlfETHAN.  43 

faithfulness  of  his  records,  as  the  scribe  of  the  session  and 
congregation,  give  a  value  to  the  earlier  documents  which 
cannot  be  over  estimated,  and  singularly  contrast  with  those 
of  other  of  our  older  congregations,  whose  earlier  records 
are  sparse  and  unsatisfactory.  Mr.  Cuthberston  died  in 
July,  1785. 

There  was  a  long  vacancy  after  the  demission  of  Mr. 
Horn.  He,  however,  occasionally  visited  the  congregation 
in  their  vacant  condition,  and  ministered  to  them.  During 
the  vacancy,  the  congregation  brought  out  calls  in  favour  of 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Moir,  then  of  Cumbernauld  ;  Mr.  Ballantyne, 
afterwards  of  Dundee  ;  Mr.  Henderson,  afterwards  of  Glas- 
gow; and  Mr.  Richardson,  afterwards  of  Greenock;  but 
were  unsuccessful  in  obtaining  a  fixed  pastor  till  June,  1775, 
when  Mr.  William  Scot  was  ordained.  After  a  ministry  of 
thirty-six  years,  his  usefulness  and  comfort  having  been 
broken  in  upon  by  untoward  circumstances,  he ( deemed  it 
expedient  to  demit  his  charge  in  the  year  1811.  He  died 
on  the  28th  July,  1821,  in  the  77th  year  of  his  age. 

During  the  vacancy  which  ensued,  the  congregation 
brought  out  calls  in  favour  of  Mr  John  Tindall,  afterwards 
of  Rathiilet;  and  of  Mr.  Daniel  McLean,  afterwards  of 
Cupar- Angus ;  and  last,  in  July,  1815,  in  favour  of  Mr. 
Andrew  Scott.  Mr.  Scott  received  competing  calls  from 
Lilliesleaf,  Auchtermuchty,  and  Girvan.  He  was  ordained 
at  Daviesdykes  on  the  9th  April,  1816.  The  lease  by  which 
the  congregation  held  their  property  at  Daviesdykes  being 
temporary,  and  being  soon  after  Mr.  Scott's  ordination  to 
expire,  his  people  wisely  resolved  to  erect  a  new  place  of 


44  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

worship  at  Bonkle,  with  a  manse.  This  they  did  in  the 
year  1818,  at  a  cost  of  nearly  £1,200;  and  there,  in  the 
44th  year  of  his  ministry,  Mr.  Scott  continues  to  labour 
with  all  the  vigour  and  acceptability  of  his  earlier  years. 

At  the  ^Revolution,  the  Scottish  Parliament  abolished 
Prelacy,  and  restored  Presbyterianism  as  the  form  of  church 
government.  The  basis,  however,  on  which  the  Presbyterian 
church  was  again  set  up,  was  far  from  being  satisfactory  to 
many,  especially  in  the  south  and  west  of  Scotland.  They 
regarded  the  covenants  which  had  been  framed,  sworn,  and 
ratified  during  the  church's  conflict  with  Charles  I.,  as  the 
palladium  of  the  liberties  of  their  country,  and  considered 
that,  in  the  settlement  of  the  church,  these  covenants  ought 
to  have  been  recognised.  They  also  felt  aggrieved  that 
some  of  the  earlier  Acts  passed  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II. 
had  not  been  formally  condemned  and  disannulled.  They 
were  farther  dissatisfied  with  the  terms  of  the  "  Abjuration 
oath ;"  looking  on  this  oath  as  setting  aside  the  tests  and 
oaths  of  preceding  Parliaments.  They  regarded  the  General 
Assembly  as  being  too  compliant  with  the  wishes  of  those 
in  favour — as  being  favourers  of  Erastianism — as  renounc- 
ing covenant  engagements  —  and  as  causing  reformation 
work,  begun  by  their  fathers,  to  retrograde  rather  than 
advance.  Again,  at  this  period  a  great  many  pious  persons 
scattered  over  the  western  and  southern  counties,  who  had 
attached  themselves  to  the  persecuted  and  martyred  minis- 
ters, and  who  were  then  commonly  called  u  society-men," 
strongly  sympathised  with  those  who  tabled  their  grievances 
before  the  Assembly.  Mr.  John  M'Millan,  who  had  been 
ordained  at  Balmaghie  in  1701,  came  forward  so  promi- 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  45 

neatly  in  condemnation  of  the  defects  and  corruptions  of  the 
Revolution  church,  that  a  process  was  commenced  against 
him,  and,  in  1704,  he  was  deposed  for  what  were  deemed 
" irregularities"  and  "disorderly  courses."  In  the  year 
1707,  he  received  a  harmonious  call  to  be  minister  of  "  the 
Societies ;"  and  from  this  period  became  the  devoted  minis- 
ter of  those,  scattered  over  the  country,  who  were  witnesses 
for  the  principles  of  covenanted  Presbyterianism. 

There  are  good  reasons  for  concluding  that  Clydesdale 
should  be  regarded  as  the  cradle  in  which  the  principles  of 
the  Reformed  Presbyterian  church  were  nursed.  In  the 
year  1712,  at  Auchinsaugh,  near  Douglas,  the  adherents  of 
Mr.  M'Millan  renewed  the  covenants ;  and  at  the  same  time 
published  a  testimony  to  their  principles,  embodying  therein 
the  constitution  of  their  church.  This  circumstance,  then, 
identifies  them  very  much  with  the  upper  ward  of  Lanark- 
shire. The  next  circumstance  which  we  notice  is,  the  origin 
of  "  the  Reformed  Presbytery."  In  the  year  1742,  "  the 
Associate  Presbytery"  prepared  a  draught  of  a  "Renewal 
of  the  Covenants."  Mr.  Thomas  Nairn  of  Abbotshall  took 
exception  to  the  terms  of  this  draught,  and  avowed  his 
having  adopted  the  views  of  the  old  dissenters,  in  relation  to 
civil  government.  He  pled  that  the  covenants  should  be 
renewed  in  the  terms  expressed  in  the  Auchinsaugh  testi- 
mony, of  date  July,  1712.  Mr.  Nairn,  on  discovering  that 
his  brethren  did  not  sympathise  with  his  views,  renounced 
their  authority  as  a  Presbytery,  and  joined  himself  to  Mr. 
McMillan ;  in  conjunction  with  whom  he  appears  to  have 
originated  "the  Reformed  Presbytery"  on  the  1st  August, 
1743.    Mr.  Nairn  was  received  into  the  fellowship  of  those 


46  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

adhering  to  the  principles  of  the  Auchinsaugh  testimony,  at 
Braehead.  In  the  testimony  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
church,  Braehead  is  spoken  of  as  "  in  the  parish  of  Cam- 
wath."  There  is  certainly  in  that  parish  a  place  bearing 
this  name ;  but  there  are  reasons  to  question  whether  the 
Braehead  in  Carnwath  was  the  place  of  Mr.  Nairn's  admis- 
sion. There  is  a  place  bearing  the  name  of  "  Braehead  " 
near  to  Millheugh,  in  the  parish  of  Dalserf,  more  likely  to 
have  been  the  place  in  question.  In  support  of  this  opinion 
it  may  be  mentioned,  that  although  Mr.  Nairn  had  with- 
drawn from  the  Associate  Presbytery,  and  been  formally 
received  into  another  denomination,  he  seems  to  have  con- 
tinued a  process  against  his  former  co-presbyters ;  and  they 
in  defence,  in  November,  1747,  prepared  and  put  into  his 
hands  a  libel,  which  he  answered  by  appearing  before  them 
in  January,  1748.  On  that  occasion  the  friends  of  Mr. 
Nairn,  accompanied  by  witnesses,  "  attempted  to  execute  a 
summons,  in  the  name  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery,  against 
the  moderator  of  the  Associate  Synod,  and  all  the  members 
of  it,  charging  them  to  appear  before  said  Presbytery,  at 
Braehead,  in  the  parish  of  Dalserf ,  on  the  15th  or  16th  day 
of  February  next."  The  Presbytery's  place  of  meeting  is 
here  so  definitely  described,  as  to  fix  it  to  the  middle  ward 
of  Lanarkshire,  and  to  a  locality  which  was  now,  more  than 
formerly,  the  stated  residence  of  Mr.  M;Millan.  When  we 
bring  to  recollection  that  he  had  been  ordained  in  the  year 
1701,  and  that  his  ministry  had  been  an  exhausting  one,  we 
need  not  wonder  that,  in  1748,  he  sought  a  settled  residence 
for  his  old  age.  He  died  on  the  1st  December,  1753,  in 
the  84th  year  of  his  age.  He  was  buried  in  the  church-yard 
of  Dalserf.     The  original  stone  upon  his  grave  contained  a 


PARISH    OF    CAMBUSNETHAN.  47 

very  amp'e  inscription,  which,  it  is  much  to  be  regretted,  is 
now  illegible.  A  few  years  ago  a  very  handsome  monument 
was  erected  on  the  spot,  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  the 
first  minister  of  "  the  Societies."  It  also  records  the  minis- 
try of  his  son  and  successor  at  Sandhills,  near  Glasgow,  and 
of  his  grandson  at  Stirling.  The  former  died  on  the  6th 
February,  1808,  aged  79  years ;  and  the  latter,  on  the  20th 
October,  1818,  aged  68. 

In  Cambusnethan,  and  the  surrounding  parishes,  there 
must,  from  an  early  period,  have  been  many  adherents  to 
the  principles  of  the  covenants.     Cambusnethan  furnished 
its  full  share  of  honourable  witnesses  for  these  principles, 
during  the  period  of  oppressive  and  bloody  persecution.     It 
had  its  favourite  meeting  places  and  hiding  places.     Within 
the  secluded  enclosure  of  Darmeid  multitudes  occasionally 
congregated  to  listen  to  the  voices  of  Cameron,  Cargill,  and 
Renwick ;  and  though  this  spot  is  seldomer  referred  to  than 
some  others,  in  the  narratives  of  the  persecuted,  yet  it  has 
been  consecrated  by  the  communings  of  the  best  men  of  the 
covenanting   period.      Owing  to  its  solitude  and  safety, 
it  was  chosen  by  them,  when  their  circumstances  called,  for 
prayerful  deliberation  as  to  the  course  which  they  should 
pursue.     It  is  generally  understood,  that  some  of  the  more 
decisive  measures  which  were  then  agreed  upon,  were  plan- 
ned in  this  retreat,  and  emanated  from  it.     So  many  asso- 
ciations cling  to  Darmeid,  that  it  is  little  to  be  wondered  at, 
that  the  children  of  the  persecuted  revere  it,  and  revisit  it, 
remembering  u  their  fathers  worshipped  in  this  mountain." 
The  writer  of  this  narrative  recollects  being  told  by  a  very 
old  man,  that  when  a  boy  he  and  a  companion  went  on  a 


48  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 


visit  to  Darmeid.  Soon  after  they  had  reached  it,  and  were 
resting,  under  the  fatigue  of  their  walk  thither,  they  espied 
a  man  entering  by  the  only  path  by  which  the  place  was 
approachable,  and  drawing  near  the  spot  where  they  lay. 
They  concealed  themselves  among  the  long  heather.  He 
came  within  a  few  yards  of  them,  and  after  having  for  some 
time  consulted  his  Bible,  he  knelt,  and  for  a  fall  hour  poured 
out  his  soul  in  audible  and  fervent  prayer  and  thanksgiving 
to  the  God  of  his  fathers — recounting  the  trials  through 
which  they  had  passed,  and  praising  God  for  their  faithful- 
ness to  the  principles  which  they  had  espoused.  Having 
concluded  his  prayer,  he  withdrew  by  the  path  by  which  he 
had  entered,  occasionally  "  casting  a  lingering  look  behind." 
The  prayer  presented  in  that  scene  of  solitude,  on  such  a 
theme,  left  an  impression  on  the  two  young  hearts  which 
the  lapse  of  many  years  had  not  in  the  slightest  degree 
effaced.  In  the  year  1836,  the  Rev.  John  Graham  of 
Wishawtown — now  Dr.  Graham  of  Liverpool — preached  a 
sermon  at  Darmeid,  when  a  sum  was  collected  towards  the 
erecting  of  a  monumental  pillar.  It  has  been  inscribed,  "  In 
memory  of  Cameron,  Cargill,  and  Renwick,  and  their  breth- 
ren, who  worshipped  in  this  spot  in  the  time  of  the  last 
persecution.  They  jeopardied  their  lives  unto  the  death  in 
the  high  places  of  the  field."  In  Allanton  house,  Darngavel, 
Blackhall,  Cam'nethan-mains,  and  many  other  pious  houses, 
the  oppressed  frequently  assembled  for  prayer  and  fellow- 
ship. When  these  circumstances  are  taken  into  considera- 
tion, coupled  with  the  fact  that  Mr.  M'Millan  spent  his  last 
years  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  must  have  frequently 
preached  in  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan,  it  will  be  easily 
accounted  for  that  Wishawtown  should  have  been  selected 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  49 

as  the  site  of  a  place  of  worship.  The  period  preceding  the 
organising  of  a  congregation  here  had  been  the  time  of  "the 
moveable  tabernacle."  Even  so  late  as  the  year  1781,  there 
is  reference  in  the  minutes  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery  to 
the  congregation  of  u Stirling  and  Hamilton:"  and  as  a  proof 
of  the  extent  of  this  congregation,  the  minutes  make  refer- 
ence to  the  occasional  dispensation  of  the  Lord's  Supper  at 
Carluke,  Hamilton,  Shotts,  Motherwell,  and  Cumbernauld. 

The  first  pastor  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Congrega- 
tion in  Wishaw  was  Mr.  Archibald  Mason.  He  was  born 
in  the  parish  of  Old  Monkland,  on  the  15th  September, 
1 753 ;  educated  at  Glasgow  college ;  and  licensed  to  preach 
the  gospel  on  the  12th  August,  1783.  He  could  have 
obtained  an  early  settlement  in  a  pastoral  charge  but  for 
the  peculiar  circumstances  of  the  denomination  at  the  time. 
The  supply  of  preachers  was  very  limited  ;  and,  as  the 
people  were  widely  scattered  over  Scotland,  it  was  found 
expedient  that  his  probationary  ministry  among  them  should 
be  prolonged  much  farther  than,  under  other  circumstances, 
it  would  have  been.  Calls  were  presented  to  him  from 
Perth  and  Dundee,  as  well  as  from  the  congregation  of 
Wishawtown  and  Hamilton.  Over  the  latter  he  was  or- 
dained on  the  1st  May,  1787,  at  Flemington,  in  the  parish 
of  Dalziel.  The  line  of  the  Caledonian  Railway  passes 
within  a  few  yards  of  the  spot  where  Mr.  Mason  was  or- 
dained. The  precise  spot  is  marked  by  a  solitary  ash  tree, 
under  whose  shadow  he  was  ordained  by  the  imposition  of 
hands ;  and  on  the  same  spot,  on  the  following  Sabbath,  he 
was  introduced  to  his  pastoral  charge  by  the  Rev.  John 
Thorburn  of  Pentland.    Flemington  was  the  principal  scene 

E 


50  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

of  his  Sabbath  ministrations  for  several  years.  His  people 
were  scattered  over  a  very  extensive  district,  on  both  sides 
of  the  Clyde.  Time  was  requisite  to  consolidate  them ; 
and,  in  their  circumstances,  it  required  some  deliberation 
before  determining  on  a  site  for  erecting  a  place  of  worship. 
A  few  years  before  this,  a  project  had  been  originated  to 
commence  a  village  on  the  Wishaw  estate,  on  the  public 
road  to  Lanark;  and,  as  the  proprietor  wa3  disposed  to 
grant  leases  on  very  favourable  terms,  a  few  cottages  had 
been  erected.  Mr.  Mason's  congregation,  regarding  the  site 
of  this  projected  village  as  being  somewhat  central  for  them, 
resolved  to  take  in  lease  as  much  ground  as  was  deemed 
suitable  for  a  church,  manse,  and  glebe.  Their  feu- tack  is 
dated  5th  March,  1792,  and  was  granted  to  the  following 
gentlemen,  as  trustees  on  behoof  of  the  congregation,  viz. : 
Gavin  Rowet,  joiner  in  Hamilton;  Thomas  Kussel,  far- 
mer in  Muirhouse ;  James  Rodger,  farmer  in  Roundtrees  ; 
Gavin  Scot,  in  Catraige ;  and  Thomas  Muirhead,  in  Flem- 
ihgton.  On  this  property  a  place  of  worship  was  in  due 
time  erected  ;  and  here,  for  the  long  period  of  nearly  forty- 
five  years,  Mr.  Mason  pursued  his  ministry,  beloved  not 
only  by  his  own  people,  but  by  all  the  godly  in  the  district 
who  enjoyed  his  friendship.  His  mind  was  enlightened, 
reflective,  and  studious ;  and  though  his  oral  ministry  was 
not  much  known  beyond  the  circle  of  his  own  denomination, 
he  became  extensively  known,  by  his  writings,  throughout 
America,  as  well  as  Great  Britain.  The  first  of  his  publica- 
tions was  a  "  Testimony  and  Warning  against  Socinian  and 
Unitarian  Errors,''  in  the  year  1793,  which  appeared  under 
the  sanction  of  the  Reformed  Presbytery.  The  second  was, 
a  Observations  on  the  Public  Covenants,"  in  the  year  1799. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  51 

The  nations  of  Europe  were  then  being  convulsed  by  war 
and  revolution,  and  ominous  changes  were  passing  over  the 
face  of  society.  Mr.  Mason  was  led  to  enquire,  how  far 
these  were  to  be  regarded  as  the  fulfilment  of  prophecy ; 
and  his  views  on  many  important  points  in  the  Prophetic 
Scriptures  were  published,  in  a  series  of  works,  during  the 
subsequent  twenty-seven  years  of  his  ministry.  His  third 
publication  was  a  treatise  on  "  Christ,  the  Mediatorial 
Angel,  casting  the  Fire  of  Divine  Judgment  into  the  Earth," 
which  appeared  in  the  year  1800.  The  fourth  was,  "  The 
Spiritual  Illumination  of  the  Gentiles,  coeval  with  the  Con- 
version of  the  Jews,"  in  the  year  1816.  The  fifth  was  an 
"Inquiry  into  the  Times  that  shall  be  fulfilled  at  Antichrist's 
Fall,"  which  was  published  in  1818,  and  met  with  such 
an  acceptance  that  a  new  edition  had  to  be  brought  out  in 
the  year  1821.  The  sixth  was,  "  Essays  on  Daniel's  Pro- 
phetic Number,"  in  1821.  And  the  seventh,  in  the  same 
year,  was,  "The  Fall  of  Babylon  the  Great,  by  the  Agency 
of  Christ.  The  eighth  was,  "A  Scriptural  View  of  the 
Divine  Mystery  concerning  the  Jews'  Blindness  and  Kejec- 
tion,  and  the  Coming  in  of  the  Gentiles'  Fulness,"  in  the 
year  1825.  The  ninth  and  tenth  were  in  the  year  1827, 
entitled,  "Remarks  on  the  Sixth  Vial,  symbolising  the  Fall 
of  the  Turkish  Empire,"  and  "The  Fall  of  Popery  and 
Despotism."  The  eleventh  and  last  publication  was,  "  Ob- 
servations, Doctrinal  and  Practical,  on  Saving  Faith,"  which 
appeared  in  the  year  1829.  In  the  year  1831,  the  college 
of  Schenectady  conferred  on  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Divinity ;  but  he  did  not  long  survive  to  enjoy  its  well- 
earned  honours.  He  was  now  in  his  79th  year,  and  after 
a  confinement  to  bed  of  only  three  days,  he  departed  this 


52  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES    OF   THE 

life  on  the  19th  November,  1831.  He  was  succeeded  by 
Mr.  John  Graham — now  the  He  v.  Dr.  Graham  of  Liver- 
pool— on  the  14th  August,  1832 ;  who,  after  a  ministry  in 
Wishaw  of  fourteen  years,  was  translated  to  Ayr,  on  the 
13th  August,  1846.  After  a  vacancy  of  a  few  years,  Mr. 
John  Biggar  was  ordained  over  the  congregation  on  the 
11th  September,  1851  ;  but  his  health  having  speedily  so 
far  given  way  as  not  to  hold  out  a  prospect  of  early  re- 
covery to  ministerial  usefulness,  the  pastoral  relationship 
was  dissolved  in  1855.  Mr.  Robert  Thomson  Martin,  the 
present  pastor  of  the  congregation,  was  ordained  on  the 
30th  July,  1856. 

„,.*  Previous  to  the  summer  of  1822,  the  Church  at  Cambus- 
nethan,  the  United  Secession  Church  at  Bonkle,  and  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  Church  in  Wishaw,  were  the  only 
places  of  public  worship  in  the  parish.  In  that  year  a  large 
number  of  persons  belonging  to  the  national  church  thought 
fit  to  withdraw  from  it,  and  to  place  themselves  under  the 
Relief  Presbytery  of  Glasgow.  Their  first  application  for 
sermon  was  presented  to  that  Presbytery  on  the  6th  August, 
1822,  and  was  complied  with.  On  the  Sabbath  following — 
the  11th  day  of  the  month — the  Rev.  John  French,  then  of 
Strathaven,  and  latterly  of  South  College  Street,  Edinburgh, 
preached  twice  in  the  open  air  ;  the  Reformed  Presbyterian 
congregation  in  Wishaw,  on  that  occasion,  kindly  granted 
him  the  use  of  their  "  tent "  to  preach  from.  The  members 
of  the  first  committee  of  management  were — Robert  Gard- 
ner, merchant  in  Wishaw,  preses ;  John  Reid,  weaving- 
agent  in  Wishaw,  treasurer;  Daniel  Baillie,  wright  in 
Wishaw,  clerk ;  Alexander  Gardner,  ploughman  at  Wishaw 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  53 

farm  ;  John  Ferguson,  farmer  in  Thornlie ;  William  Som- 
merville,  weaver  in  Wishaw ;  Andrew  Gold,  mason  at 
Cambusnethan  ;  James  Marshall,  mason  in  Wishaw;  Alex- 
ander King,  farmer  in  High  Netherton ;  John  Neilson, 
farmer  in  Low  Netherton;  John  Addie,  weaver  in  Wishaw; 
James  Steven,  weaver  in  Wishaw ;  and  James  Neilson,  in 
Meadowhead.  On  the  27th  August,  the  committee  of 
management  appointed  a  deputation  to  wait  on  the  Right 
Hon.  Lord  Belhaven,  and  endeavour  to  obtain  a  suitable 
site  for  a  place  of  worship.  They  met  with  encouragement 
from  his  Lordship ;  and  on  the  9th  September,  at  a  general 
meeting  of  the  congregation,  it  was  uresolved  to  build  as  soon 
as  possible ;  and  Thomas  Watson,  James  Marshall,  Andrew 
Gold,  and  Daniel  Baillie  were  appointed  to  draw  out  speci- 
fications, in  order  to  ascertain  the  probable  expense,  and 
instructed  to  meet  for  that  purpose  the  following  day."  The 
committee  met  next  day — drew  out  specifications — submit- 
ted them  to  tradesmen — and,  on  the  17th  of  the  month, 
closed  a  contract  with  Mr.  James  Marshall,  to  build  the 
meeting-house,  and,  on  the  23d,  with  Mr.  David  Lothian, 
for  the  doors,  windows,  and  roofing  of  the  place  of  worship. 
The  internal  fittings  of  the  church  were  executed  by  Mr. 
James  Dalziel ;  and  the  house  was  formally  opened  for 
public  worship  on  the  3d  August,  1823,  by  the  Rev.  Robert 
Cameron,  of  East  Kilbride.  Between  this  date  and  the 
month  of  October,  1824,  the  congregation  repeatedly  con- 
vened to  deliberate  on  bringing  out  a  call  for  a  stated  pastor. 
On  the  6th  July,  1824,  Mr.  Peter  Brown  was  licensed  by 
the  Presbytery  of  Glasgow.  He  preached  for  the  first  time 
at  Wishaw  on  the  26th  September,  and  a  second  time  on 
the  17th  October.     On  the  26th  October  the  congregation, 


54  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

having  been  convened,  unanimously  agreed  to  petition  the 
Presbytery  to  allow  Mr.  Brown  to  finish  his  days  of  proba- 
tion among  them  ;  at  the  same  time  craved  a  moderation 
of  a  call,  and  fixed  the  amount  of  stipend  to  Mr.  Brown, 
in  the  event  of  his  accepting  their  call.  Before  this  petition 
could  be  presented,  the  Relief  congregation  at  Hawick  had 
called  Mr.  Brown ;  and  as  he  had  signified  his  intention  to 
accept  it,  the  congregation  at  Wishaw  continued  in  a  state 
of  vacancy.  On  the  27th  June,  1825,  they  brought  out  a 
call  in  favour  of  Mr.  John  M'Intyre,  who,  having  accepted 
it,  was  ordained  among  them  on  the  20th  October  thereafter. 

Immediately  upon  his  ordination,  Mr.  M'Intyre  adopted 
suitable  measures  for  having  a  session  regularly  chosen,  to 
assist  him  in  the  organisation  and  government  of  a  church. 
Hitherto  there  had  only  been  a  congregation,  and  as  yet  the 
Lord's  Supper  had  not  been  administered  to  them,  nor  a 
body  of  persons  associated  in  church  fellowship.  On  the 
19th  March,  1826,  James  Marshall,  mason  in  Wishaw, 
Andrew  Gold,  mason  in  Cambusnethan,  John  Ferguson, 
farmer  in  Thornlie,  John  Brownlie,  miller  in  Garrion-mill, 
and  on  the  9th  July,  1826,  William  Lindsay,  shoemaker  at 
Windmillhill,  were  ordained  to  the  eldership.  The  Lord's 
Supper  was  for  the  first  time  dispensed  on  the  16th  July, 
1826.  William  Lindsay  died  in  May,  1851.  Andrew  Gold 
on  the  13th  November,  1857.  John  Ferguson  on  the  10th 
February,  1858 :  and  James  Marshall  on  the  21st  August, 
1858.  John  Brownlie  of  Garrion-mill  is,  at  the  present 
date,  the  only  surviving  member  of  the  original  session. 
Mr.  M'Intyre's  health  visibly  began  to  give  way  in  the 
summer  of  1829.    His  last  sermon  was  delivered  on  the 


PAKISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  55 

4th  October  of  that  year.  He  died  on  the  3d  March,  1830, 
in  the  33d  year  of  his  age.  The  public  obituary  notices,  at 
the  time,  bore  to  him  the  following  testimony : — 

"  His  short,  but  splendid  career,  and  great  promise  of 
future  usefulness,  will  long  be  remembered  with  mingled 
feelings  of  pleasure  and  regret." 

On  the  6th  September,  1831,  the  congregation  petitioned 
the  Presbytery  for  a  moderation  in  a  call.  The  Presbytery 
appointed  it  to  take  place  on  the  27th  of  that  month.  On 
that  day  the  candidates  were  —  the  Rev.  Peter  Brown, 
Hawick ;  Mr.  James  Boyd,  now  Dr.  Boyd  of  Campbelton  ; 
Mr.  Alexander  M'Coll,  late  of  Berwick,  and  now  of  Niagara 
Falls,  State  of  New  York ;  Mr.  James  Hamilton,  late  of 
Largo ;  and  Mr.  James  Russel,  now  of  the  West  United 
Presbyterian  Church,  Old  Kilpatrick.  The  call  by  a  great 
majority,  turned  out  in  favour  of  Mr.  Brown ;  and  having, 
in  due  form,  been  transmitted  to  the  Presbytery  of  Kelso, 
in  whose  bounds  Mr.  Brown  then  was,  and  he  having 
accepted  it,  was  admitted  at  Wishaw,  by  the  Presbytery  of 
Glasgow,  on  the  22d  December,  1831. 

The  congregations  which  have  been  more  recently  formed 
within  the  bounds  of  Cambusnethan  are  those  of  Wishaw 
Parish  Church,  the  Evangelical  Union  Church  at  Stane,  the 
Free  Church  at  Cambusnethan,  and  the  Primitive  Methodist 
Church  and  Roman  Catholic  congregation  in  Wishaw. 

There  are  no  buildings  of  very  great  antiquity  in  the 
parish.  Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  existing 
ruins  of  the  old  church  in  the  vale  of  Clyde,  and  to  the  old 


56  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES    OF   THE 

Tower  of  Garrion.  The  original  house  of  Allanton  was  a 
tower,  the  greater  portion  of  which  required  to  be  taken 
down,  when  the  present  mansion  was  erected,  in  the  year 
1788.  A  portion  of  the  original  building  still  exists.  On 
the  lintel  of  a  door,  the  date  1591  is  inscribed,  but  whether 
this  is  the  date  of  the  erection  of  the  tower  is  uncertain. 
When  Coltness  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Steuarts,  the 
mansion-house  was  a  little  tower-house,  containing  a  vault 
and  two  rooms,  one  above  the  other,  with  garrets ;  but  Sir 
James  added  a  kitchen  and  six  fire  rooms,  before  bringing 
his  family  from  Edinburgh  to  Coltness.  The  present  house 
is  comparatively  modern,  and  has  been  very  greatly  improved 
and  enlarged  by  the  present  proprietor.  The  principal  por- 
tion of  Wishaw  house  is  of  recent  erection.  The  older 
portion  appears  to  have  been  built  in  the  year  1665.  Cam- 
nethan  house  is  one  of  the  finest  architectural  structures  in 
the  vale  of  Clyde,  and  was  erected  about  forty  years  ago. 
There  is  not  a  house  in  the  Burgh  of  Wishaw  but  has  been 
erected  within  the  last  eighty-two  years. 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  57 


$\t  Mttxmxh  of  QUvudan. 


In  a  Historical  Sketch  of  the  Parish  of  Cambusnethan, 
it  has  been  deemed  proper  to  give  historical  notices  of  the 
older  and  principal  families  in  it.  The  Steuarts  of 
Allaton,  on  account  of  the  high  antiquity  of  their  ancestry, 
are  entitled  to  the  first  notice. 

His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  of  Wales  has  several 
Scotch  titles,  and  the  title  which  takes  precedence  is  "Great 
Steward  of  Scotland."  This  title  was  in  existence  during 
the  eleventh  century.  "  Steward  "  is  a  Celtic  compound. 
41  Sti "  denotes  a  house,  and  "  ward  "  a  keeper.  "  Steward" 
is  of  the  same  import  as  u  seneschal,"  which  signifies  the 
senior  servant,  and  is  synonomous  with  our  more  modern 
term  "  chamberlain."  Thejirst  Great  Steward  of  Scotland 
was  Walter,  who  died  in  the  year  1089.  The  second  was 
Allan,  who  died  in  the  year  1153.  The  third  was  Walter, 
who  died  in  the  year  1177.  The  fourth  was  Allan,  who 
died  in  the  year  1204.  The  fifth  was  Walter,  who  died  in 
the  year  1241.  The  sixth  was  Alexander,  who  died  in  the 
year  1283.  His  second  son  was  John,  who  married  Mar- 
garet de  Bonkyll,  and  was  then  styled  "  Sir  John  Steuart 
of  Bonkyll."     One  of  the  signatures  to  a  communication 


58  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

sent  from  the  Barons  of  Scotland  to  Edward  1.  in  1290,  is, 
11  Alisaundre  de  Bonkyll."  Sir  John  was  slain  at  the  battle 
of  Falkirk,  in  the  same  engagement  in  which  Sir  John  the 
Graham  fell,  22d  July,  1298.  Both  were  interred  in  the 
burial-ground  of  Falkirk.  The  tomb-stone  over  the  grave 
of  the  latter  has  been  repeatedly  renewed,  but  the  stone  over 
that  of  the  former  seems  to  be  the  original  one,  from  its 
highly  antique  configuration.  When  the  present  church  at 
Falkirk  was  rebuilt  in  the  year  1811,  the  inscription  on  the 
stone  over  the  grave  of  Sir  John  Steuart,  having  been  very 
much  effaced  by  time,  was  renewed,  by  simply  cutting  the 
letters  deeper  into  the  body  of  the  stone.  It  is  as  follows : — 
Here  Lies 

A 

Scottish 

Hero 

Sir 

John 

Steuart 

Who  Was 

Killed 

At  the 

Battle 

Of 

Falkirk 

22  July 

1298. 

t 

Sir  John  Steuart,  by  his  marriage  with  the  heiress  cf 
Bonkyll,  became  the  father  of  several  sons ;  who,  in  their 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  59 

turn  became  the  founders  of  the  illustrious  houses  of  Dreg- 
horn,  Angus,  Galloway,  Atholl,  Traquair,  and  Buchan.  His 
sixth  son  was  Sir  Robert  Steuart  of  Daldowie,  in  Clydesdale, 
the  founder  of  the  house  of  Allanton.  Sir  Robert  had 
extensive  possessions  around.  Rutherglen,  and  also  in  the 
county  of  Renfrew.  He  fought  at  the  battle  of  Bannock- 
burn,  in  the  year  1314,  under  the  banner  of  his  kinsman, 
the  Lord  High  Steward  of  Scotland.  He  died  in  the  year 
1330.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Allan,  who  married  a 
daughter  of  Douglas  of  Douglas,  commonly  known  in  Scot- 
tish history  by  the  name  of  uthe  Black  Douglas. ''  He  was 
bred  to  arms,  and  seems  to  have  earned  the  honours  which 
continue  to  be  emblazoned  on  the  escutcheon  of  his  descend- 
ants. In  consequence  of  having  displayed  great  bravery  in 
heading  a  party  which  stormed  the  castle  of  Alnwick,  in 
Northumberland,  he  was  sirnamed  "  Alnwickster."  In 
the  year  1385,  Richard  II.  invaded  Scotland  with  a  very 
large  army.  Allan  Steuart  of  Daldowie,  though  then 
upwards  of  sixty  years  of  age,  impelled  by  his  patriotism, 
collected  a  large  body  of  horsemen  in  the  districts  in 
Lanarkshire  and  Renfrewshire,  in  which  his  possessions 
and  influence  chiefly  lay.  On  his  way  to  join  the  general 
body  of  the  Scottish  army  he  passed  through  Cambusnethan, 
where  he  encountered  an  advanced  party  of  the  English 
army,  at  a  part  of  the  moor  of  M'Morren,  now  called  Morn- 
ingside.  The  conflict  was  a  severe  one,  but  the  party 
commanded  by  Allan  Steuart  was  victorious.  Allan, 
however,  was  slain.  His  body  was  buried  in  the  chapel  of 
Beuskiag,  in  the  vicinity  of  Morningside, — a  religious  house 
dependant  on  the  Abbey  of  Aberbi  othic,  which  house  gave 
a  name  to  the  district — "the  Chapel" — a  name  which  it 


60  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 


' 


continues  to  bear.  Several  years  ago,  when  drains  were 
being  cut,  for  agricultural  improvement,  on  the  marshy- 
portion  of  the  scene  of  engagement,  swords,  spears,  and 
helmets  were  found.  Some  of  these  memorials  of  the  con- 
flict are,  at  the  present  day,  carefully  preserved  in  the 
mansion-house  of  Allanton.  The  battle  gave  names  to 
places  in  its  immediate  vicinity,  by  which  names  they  con- 
tinue to  be  known.  One  of  them,  "  Cathburn,"  signifies 
the  battle  burn.  "  Cathkers,"  near  Allanton  house,  signifies 
the  field  eastward  of  the  battle.  The  whole  district  was 
then  called  "Alcathmuir,"  signifying  the  muir  of  Allarfs 
battle;  and  the  stream  which  waters  its  southern  and  west- 
ern boundary  was  called  "  Alcath  water,"  signifying  the 
water  of  Allan's  battle.  This  stream  has  long  been  vulgarly 
called  u  Aughter water." 

About  forty-five  years  ago,  the  late  Sir  Henry  Steuart  of 
Allanton,  with  the  view  of  honouring  the  memory  of  his 
heroic  ancestor,  erected  a  fountain,  near  the  mansion-house, 
on  which  is  the  following  inscription : — 

D.  M. 

Allani  Stevart  de  Allanton. 

Et  Daldvi.  Equitis.  Banneretti. 

Viri.  Egregii.  Armis.  Agerrimi. 

Ejusdem.  qui.  insigni.  Pugna. 

Apud.  Morningside.  Clarus.  Factus. 

Fons.    Sacer, 

V.  S.  L.  A.  Faciund.  C.  An.  1813.  H.  S. 
XI.  Gradus,  Distans.  Hie.  A.  Duce.  Illo.  Fortissimo. 

The  hero  of  Morningside  was  accompanied  by  his  son — 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  6l 

Allan  also  by  name — who,  after  performing  the  funeral 
obsequies  over  the  remains  of  his  parent  in  the  chapel  of 
Beuskiag,  proceeded  with  his  troop  to  join  the  main  body 
of  the  army  in  repelling  the  invader.  On  his  return  home, 
King  Robert  II.,  who  was  then  residing  at  Lochmaben 
castle,  in  acknowledgement  of  his  patriotism  and  bravery, 
conferred  on  him  the  honour  of  Knight  Banneret;  being 
knighted  under  the  royal  standard,  which  was  then  regarded 
as  the  highest  military  honour  which  could  be  received.  And 
farther,  in  acknowledgement  of  the  bravery  of  his  parent, 
who  was  slain  in  the  engagement  at  Morningside,  he  was 
permitted  to  bear  upon  his  escutcheon  the  lion-passant  of 
England,  quartered  with  a  broken  spear,  surmounted  by  a 
helmet,  with  the  Scottish  lion  for  supporters — which  are 
the  armorial  bearings  of  the  Steuarts  of  Allanton  to  this 
day.  The  crest  is  a  hand  issuing  from  a  coronet,  grasping  a 
Scotch  thistle,  with  the  motto,  "  Juvat  aspera  fortes,"  and 
under  the  shield,  the  motto  is,  "  Virtutis  in  bello  premium.' 

Sir  Allan  appears  to  have  gone  to  reside  in  France  during 
the  time  Charles  VI.  was  Dauphin,  and  to  have  served  under 
that  prince.  On  returning  to  Scotland,  about  the  year  1421, 
he  obtained  from  the  Abbot  of  Aberbrothic,  under  a  favour- 
able tenure,  lands,  to  a  considerable  extent,  in  the  moor  of 
M'Morren.  These  lands  he  thought  proper  to  call  "Allan- 
ton,  "  and  from  that  time  he  was  styled  "  Sir  Allan  Steuart, 
of  Daldowie  and  Allanton."  He  had  a  partiality  for  his 
newly-acquired  property  at  Allanton,  and  came  to  reside  on 
ic.  When  Baron  Hay  of  Yester  became  military  vassal  to 
the  Abbot  for  the  whole  of  the  extensive  district  of  M'Mor- 
ren's  moor,  Sir  Allan  held  his  lands,  by  a  similar  tenure, 


62  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 


from  that  nobleman.  The  original  grant  of  the  lands  from 
the  Abbot  was  in  existence  at  the  commencement  of  last 
century,  when,  unfortunately,  it  and  other  valuable  docu 
ments  were  destroyed  by  fire. 

Sir  Allan  married  a  French  lady  while  resident  in  Paris, 
and  his  eldest  son,  James,  having  been  born  in  that  city 
was  usually  sirnamed,  u  of  Paris.'"  His  fathers  had  been 
men  of  war ;  but  he  was  a  man  who  loved  peace  and  re 
tirement,  and  greatly  improved  his  Allanton  estate.  He 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  James,  who,  on  account  of  his 
taste  for  literature,  was  sirnamed  "  the  Antiquary."  He 
commenced  a  manuscript  narrative  of  the  house  of  his 
fathers,  bringing  it  down  to  his  own  day.  This  narrative 
has  been  continued  by  several  of  his  descendants,  from  time 
to  time,  and  still  exists  among  the  family  papers.  "  The 
Antiquary"  died  in  the  year  1489.  He  was  succeeded  by 
his  second  son,  Allan.  This  Allan  had  two  sons — Gavin  and 
Adam.  To  the  elder  he  gave  the  lands  of  Daldowie,  and 
to  the  younger  the  lands  of  Allanton.  Gavin  married  a 
daughter  of  James  Lockhart  of  Lee,  by  whom  he  had  two 
sons  :  viz.,  James,  who  became  heir  to  both  his  father  and 
uncle ;  and  Allan,  who  obtained  the  lands  of  Garbathill. 
Gavin  Steuart  died  in  the  year  1557.  Allan  was  immedi- 
ately succeeded  by  his  son  Adam,  who  became  Adam  Steuart 
of  Allanton.  He  also  married  into  the  Lee  family.  In  the 
year  1536,  he  passed  into  England  on  some  mission  of  a 
public  or  private  nature,  as  appears  from  a  record  in  the 
Kegister  office,  of  a  safe  conduct  granted  to  him  and  six 
persons  who  accompanied  him.  He  died  without  issue  in 
the  year  1574. 


PAEISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  63 

During  the  life-time  of  Adam  Steuart,  the  principles  of 
the  Reformation  had  gained  many  friends  in  Scotland.  One 
of  the  most  active  agents  in  the  diffusion  of  these  principles, 
especially  over  the  west  of  Scotland,  was  the  eminent  min- 
ister of  the  gospel,  George  Wish  art,  who  suffered  martyrdom 
at  St.  Andrews,  in  the  year  1546,  at  the  instigation  of 
Cardinal  Beaton.  Wishart  was  the  intimate  friend  of 
Adam  Steuart,  and  occasionally  found  not  only  a  home, 
but  a  hiding-place  from  his  persecutors,  in  the  tower  of 
Allanton.  There  was  a  small  secret  apartment  in  the  old 
tower,  formed  out  of  the  thickest  part  of  the  wall.  This 
was  Wishart's  hiding-place,  and  that  of  others  who  were  in 
peril  for  their  religious  principles.  When  Wishart,  or  any 
other  of  the  persecuted  party,  sought  refuge  at  Allanton,  it 
was  so  arranged  that  he  arrived  during  the  night;  and 
that  his  being  there  should  be  concealed,  even  from  the 
servants.  It  was  necessary,  however,  that  one  person 
should  be  in  the  secret,  so  as  the  better  to  aid  the  family  in 
the  successful  concealment  of  their  friends.  The  confidant 
on  this  occasion  was  a  worthy  tailor,  whose  professional 
services  were  always  in  requisition  when  the  secret  chamber 
required  to  be  occupied.  This  chamber  was  entered  by  a 
low  door,  against  which  the  tailor  placed  his  back  when 
plying  his  needle.  He  was  a  most  diligent  workman — early 
and  late — not  even  taking  a  stroll  during  meal  hours.  His 
food  was  carried  to  him  while  prosecuting  his  craft.  It  was 
sent  from  the  family  table ;  and  the  servants  had  many  a 
laugh  among  themselves,  and  cracked  their  jokes  over  the 
voracious  appetite  of  the  tailor,  as  he  was  understood  by 
them  to  consume  as  much  food  at  one  meal  as  might  serve 
two  persons.  They  required  to  be  kept  ignorant  that 
another  shared  with  him,  in  his  repasts. 


G4  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF    THE 

James  Steuart  of  Allanton,  who  was  bora  in  the  year 
1537,  succeeded  to  his  uncle  and  father  in  the  estates  of 
Allanton  and  Daldowie.  By  a  precept  of  James,  Earl  of 
Arran,  dated  at  the  palace  of  Linlithgow  in  August,  1679, 
he  is  designed  great-grandson  of  David  Tait  of  Earnock,  in 
which  lands  he  was  then  infeft.  In  the  year  1598,  a  charter 
passed  the  Great  Seal  in  his  favour,  and  that  of  his  son 
James,  of  the  lands  of  Daldowie.  He  is  understood  to  have 
been  an  intimate  friend  of  John  Knox ;  to  have  admired 
his  character ;  and  zealously  to  have  promoted  the  cause  of 
the  Eeformation  in  Scotland.  It  is  very  likely  that  Knox 
became  the  occasion  of  introducing  him  to  the  Earl  of  Argyle 
and  Kegent  Moray:  In  the  family  papers  he  is  styled 
James  "  of  Langside,"  from  his  having  been  in  the  engage- 
ment at  Langside,  in  which  Queen  Mary  was  finally  defeated. 
During  the  earlier  part  of  that  engagement  the  Queen's  forces 
were  victorious  ;  and  having  dispersed  the  King's  cavalry? 
were  proceeding  to  throw  the  foot  likewise  into  confusion, 
who  were  drawn  up  on  Langside  hill.  James  Steuart  on 
that  occasion  commanded  a  troop  of  horse,  and  on  perceiv- 
ing the  movement  of  the  vanguard  of  the  Queens  army, 
vigorously  repulsed  them  before  they  had  reached  the  sum- 
mit of  the  hill ;  and,  in  so  doing,  turned  the  tide  of  battle, 
and  greatly  contributed  to  the  victory  which  was  that  day 
achieved.  Lords  Hamilton  and  Seton  were  on  the  Queen's 
side,  and  were  so  enraged  at  Steuart  of  Allanton,  on  account 
of  the  share  which  he  had  in  the  defeat  of  the  Queen,  that 
they  actually  threatened  to  pull  down  his  house  about  his 
ears.  He  returned  to  Allanton  to  enjoy  repose,  and  improve 
his  estate.  About  a  dozen  of  very  fine  old  ash  trees,  in 
front  of  the  present  mansion-house  at  Allanton,  were  planted 
by  him,  after  the  battle  of  Langside,  in  the  year  1563. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  65 

James  "  of  Langside  "  had  two  sons,  the  elder  of  whom 
predeceased  his  father,  but  left  issue.  Grief,  at  the  loss  of 
his  son,  so  preyed  upon  him,  that  he  died  in  the  year  1608, 
and  was  succeeded  by  his  grandson,  Sir  Walter,  who  was 
born  in  the  year  1606.  Sir  Walter's  younger  brother, 
James,  became  the  first  Sir  James  Steuart  of  Coltness. 
During  Sir  Walter's  minority,  the  lands  of  Daldowie, 
which  had  been  in  the  possession  of  his  ancestors  for  more 
than  three  hundred  years,  were  sold,  to  clear  off  encum- 
brances. In  the  year  1653,  he  purchased  for  his  brother 
the  lands  of  Coltness,  from  Hamilton  of  Udstom  He  was 
married  to  the  sister  of  the  first  Lord  Belhaven,  and  had 
a  large  family.  The  heir  to  the  estate,  a  very  promising 
young  man,  was  at  the  battle  of  Dunbar,  under  General 
Leslie,  in  the  year  1650,  when  Cromwell  gained  his  signal 
victory.  The  fatigues  of  that  campaign  overpowered  young 
Steuart,  and  he  sank  under  them. 

When  Cromwell,  during  that  campaign,  was  returning 
from  Glasgow  to  Edinburgh,  he  passed  through  Cambus- 
nethan,  and  paid  a  visit  to  Allanton  house.  Sir  Walter 
thought  fit  to  keep  out  of  the  way,  but  his  lady  remained, 
and  shewed  Cromwell  great  hospitality.  Before  partaking 
of  the  refreshments  set  before  him,  he  offered  up  a  prayer, 
with  such  fervency  as  greatly  to  impress  the  lady  of  Allanton 
with  a  sense  of  the  Protector's  piety.  A  delicate  boy  re- 
mained at  home  with  his  mother,  on  the  occasion.  He  was 
particularly  attracted  by  the  hilt  of  Cromwell's  sword,  and 
ventured  to  examine  it.  On  perceiving  this,  Cromwell  clap- 
ped him  on  the  head,  and  called  him  u  my  little  captain." 
From  that  day  he  was  called  "Captain"  Steuart.      Sir 

E 


66  HISTORICAL    SKETCHES   OF   THE 

Walter  died  in  the  year  1672.  He  was  the  person  who 
gave  so  much  trouble  to  the  proprietor  of  Cam'nethan,  when 
about  to  bury  his  child  "  in  the  choir"  of  the  old  kirk — who 
succeeded  in  having  a  new  church  erected  at  Greenhead, 
and  who  claimed,  and  obtained,  the  front  seat  of  the  aisle 
gallery. 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  surviving  son,  William, 
who  was  born  in  the  year  1640.  William  married  his 
cousin,  daughter  of  Sir  James  Steuart  of  Coltness.  In  con- 
sequence of  his  connexion  with  the  Coltness  family,  he 
suffered  severely  during  the  persecuting  period,  as  will  be 
fully  noticed  in  its  proper  place.  The  fines  imposed  on  him 
were  very  heavy,  but  they  were  generously  remitted  by 
James  II.  in  the  year  1687.  The  King  offered  to  create 
him  a  baronet ;  but  not  esteeming  the  title  as  of  great  value, 
he  declined  it,  esteeming  the  title  of  knight  banneret,  con- 
ferred by  the  hands  of  Robert  II.  on  his  ancestor,  as  much 
more  honourable.  The  baronetcy  on  this  occasion  was 
conferred  on  his  cousin,  Sir  Robert  Steuart  of  Allanbank. 
He  died  in  the  year  1700,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
James,  who  died  in  the  year  1762.  He,  again,  was  succeeded 
by  his  son,  James — the  sixth  of  that  name  in  the  ancestry — 
who  married  the  daughter  of  Henry  Steuart  Barclay  of 
Colernie,  in  Fife.  He  was  a  superior  scholar  and  an  eminent 
agriculturist;  and  as  enclosing  and  planting  were  then 
becoming  popular  in  Scotland,  he  thereby  greatly  improved 
the  amenity  and  value  of  his  estate. 

The  son  and  heir  of  the  sixth  James  Steuart  of  Allanton 
was  Henry,  who  was  born  on  the  20th  October,  1759.    He 


PARISH    OP   CAMBUSNETHAN.  67 

very  successfully  studied  the  transplanting  of  large  trees,  as 
the  lawn  and  pleasure  grounds  around  Allanton  house  fully 
attest.  He  was  a  gentlemen  of  such  varied  scholarship  as 
to  obtain  the  honorary  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws,  besides 
being  enrolled  a  Fellow  of  the  Koyal  Society,  and  of  the 
Antiquarian  Society  of  Edinburgh.  In  the  year  1787,  he 
married  Lillias,  daughter  of  Hugh  Seton,  Esquire  of  Touch, 
in  the  county  of  Stirling ;  and  about  the  same  time  erected 
the  present  mansion-house,  as  the  old  Tower  of  Allanton 
was  much  decayed.  His  daughter,  Elisabeth-Margaret,  his 
sole  surviving  child,  became  hi3  heiress.  In  the  year  1812, 
she  married  Reginald  Macdonald,  Esquire  of  Staffa,  by  whom 
she  had  three  sons  and  two  daughters.  Her  father  was 
created  a  Baronet  in  May,  1814,  with  remainder  to  his  son- 
in-law,  Reginald  Macdonald,  Esquire,  who,  on  the  decease 
of  Sir  Henry,  became  second  Baronet.  He  died  in  the  year 
1838,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son,  Sir  Henry- James 
Seton-Steuart,  the  present  Baronet,  who,  in  the  year  1852, 
married  Elisabeth,  eldest  daughter  of  Robert  Montgomery, 
Esquire,  younger  son  of  Sir  James  Montgomery,  Baronet  of 
Stanhope. 

In  the  year  1835,  Elisabeth-Margaret,  the  only  surviving 
child  of  the  first  Sir  Henry,  and  heiress  of  Allanton,  added  the 
surname  of  Seton  to  her  own ;  as  in  that  year  she  suc- 
ceeded, as  sole  heiress,  in  right  of  her  mother,  to  the  estate 
of  Touch- Seton  in  the  county  of  Stirling.  She  is,  conse- 
quently, the  representative  of  one  of  the  oldest  and  most 
honourable  families  in  the  kingdom.  The  Setons  can  trace 
their  origin  to  Dougal  Seton,  who  lived  in  the  reign  of 
Alexander  I.  of  Scotland,  in  the  twelfth  century.      The 


68  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF    THE 

Setons  have  been  distinguished  in  Scotland  during  the  pro 
tracted  civil  conflicts  with  England.  William,  the  descend- 
ant of  Dougal,  was  created  Baron  de  Gordon  by  Robert  III., 
and  from  him  descended  Alexander,  who  was  created  Mar- 
quess of  Huntly  in  the  year  1449.  The  Marquess  had  a  son 
who  bore  his  father's  name — Alexander — from  whom  the 
Setons  of  Touch  are  lineally  descended.  Archibald,  the 
late  proprietor  of  Touch,  was  the  ninth  in  descent  from  the 
first  Marquess  of  Huntly.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  sister, 
Barbara,  who  dying  without  issue,  the  property  devolved 
upon  his  niece,  now  Lady  Seton-Steuart  of  Allanton.  Her 
ladyship  is  entitled,  by  her  descent,  to  be  styled  u Baroness 
de  Gordon ;"  and  has  succeeded  to  the  office  of  heritable 
armour-bearer  to  Her  Majesty,  and  squire  of  the  royal  body 
— a  title  which  has  been  in  the  family  of  Seton.  of  Touch 
for  centuries ;  there  being  charters  to  this  effect  extant  prior 
to  the  year  1488. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  69 


Utxxnxts  of  Coltes. 


As  a  branch  of  the  Allanton  family,  the  Steuarts  of  Coltness 
are  entitled  to  our  notice. 

By  referring  to  our  notices  of  the  Steuarts  of  Allanton, 
it  will  be  observed  that  James,  "  of  Langside,"  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  grandson,  Walter.  Walter  had  a  brother 
two  years  younger  than  himself — born  in  the  year  1608 — 
whose  name  was  James.  They  were  educated  at  the 
grammar  school  of  Lanark.  There  is  a  tradition,  that,  on 
returning  from  a  stroll  through  Cartland  Crags,  on  a  Satur- 
day afternoon,  with  their  young  cousin  of  Westshield,  and 
other  boys,  they  were  met  by  a  spae-wife.  She  drew  herself 
up  into  an  oracular  attitude  and  expression,  and,  pointing 
her  skiny  fingers  towards  one  of  the  boys,  said :  "  Ye're  to 
be  the  laird  o'  Allanton."  Pointing  to  another  boy,  she 
said :  "  Ye're  to  be  the  laird  o'  Westshield."  She  then 
paused,  to  the  disappointment  especially  of  James,  the 
younger  brother  of  Walter  of  Allanton.  Hovever,  from  an 
anxiety  to  knowT  his  own  fortune,  from  the  lips  of  one  who 
had  prognosticated  good  to  others,  he  asked  her,  "And 
what  am  I  to  be  ?"  "  You !  my  bairn !"  she  replied,  "  ye're 
to  be  the  laird  o'  God's  blessing,  and  ye're  ain  hand  winning 


70  HISTORICAL    SKETCHES   OF   THE 

and  ye'll  maybe  some  clay  help  to  gi'e  the  lairds  a  lift." 
This  oracle,  like  others  of  its  class,  came  to  be  talked  of 
much  oftener  after  its  fulfilment  than  before  it ;  as  James 
became  a  prosperous,  wealthy,  honourable  person.  In  his 
youth  he  went  to  Edinburgh,  to  push  his  fortune.  When 
he  left  Allanton  house,  probably  with  limited  resources  and 
prospects,  he,  nevertheless,  carried  with  him  the  fear  of  the 
Lord;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt,  that  the  share  which  he 
had  of  "the  true  riches"  became  the  foundation  of  his 
subsequent  worldly  wealth,  and  worldly  honours.  His 
prosperity  must  have  been  rapid  and  substantial,  as  in  the 
year  1630  —  when  only  in  his  twenty-second  year  —  he 
thought  fit  to  enter  into  the  married  state.  The  annalist  of 
the  Sommervilles  of  Cam'nethan,  in  alluding  to  this  marriage 
connexion,  does  so  in  contemptuous  terms — as  he  too  fre- 
quently does  when  alluding  to  the  Steuarts.  "  Her  faither," 
says  he,  "  keepit  a  worsted  chop  in  the  Luckenbooths." 
The  "Luckenbooths"  were,  at  that  time,  the  principal 
places  of  business  for  the  Edinburgh  merchants ;  and,  as 
the  merchants  of  that  day  required  to  keep  a  stock  of 
everything,  for  their  customers,  the  whole  truth  about  the 
"faither's"  business  is  not  told,  unless  it  is  mentioned  that, 
besides  "worsted,"  he  had  an  ample  supply  of  "silks  and 
satins."  The  young  lady  to  whom  James  Steuart  gave  his 
hand  and  heart,  was  Anne  Hope,  daughter  of  Henry  Hope, 
the  brother  of  Sir  Thomas  Hope  of  Craighall,  Lord  Advocate 
of  Scotland.  The  connexion  was  highly  respectable.  James 
Steuart  contracted  a  second  marriage  with  the  only  daughter 
of  David  M'Culloch  of  Goodtrees,  near  Edinburgh,  through 
whom  he  acquired  that  estate.  This  was  in  the  year  1646, 
and  the  position,  and  worth  of  character  which  he  had  by 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  71 

that  time  acquired,  in  public  estimation,  may  be  inferred  from 
the  circumstance  of  his  having  been  provost  of  Edinburgh 
from  1648  till  1660.  In  1650,  he,  along  with  the  Marquess 
of  Argyle  and  the  Earl  of  Eglinton,  held  a  conference  with 
Cromwell  on  Bruntsfield-links.  He  was  at  the  same  time 
Commissary-General  of  the  army  which  Cromwell  had 
defeated  that  year  at  Dunbar.  He  took  an  active  part  in 
the  restoration  of  Charles  II.,  as  will  be  detailed  in  the  next 
lecture  ;  but,  in  consequence  of  his  Whig  principles,  and 
adherence  to  the  covenants,  was  not  only  deprived  of  his 
office  of  provost,  but  very  heavily  fined  and  subjected  to 
long  imprisonment.  The  particulars  of  these  sufferings  will 
also  be  given  in  the  next  lecture.  During  his  provostship 
he  was  knighted ;  and,  by  his  influence,  the  same  honour 
was  conferred  on  his  brother,  Walter,  of  Allanton.  The 
lands  of  West  Carbarns,  or  Kirkfield,  in  Cambusnethan,  had 
been  purchased  by  him  from  Sommerville  of  Cam'nethan,  and 
his  first  title  was,  "  Sir  James  Steuart  of  Kirkfield."  The 
Coltness  estate,  which  had  also  at  one  time  been  a  portion 
of  the  large  barony  of  Cam'nethan,  was  then  the  property 
of  John  Hamilton  of  Udston.  About  the  year  1653,  the 
Coltness  estate  was  purchased  by  Sir  James  Steuart. 

By  his  marriage  with  Miss  Hope,  Sir  James  had  seven 
sons  and  one  daughetr,  Margaret  by  name,  married  to  her 
cousin,  William  Steuart  of  Allanton.  His  eldest  son  was 
Thomas.  His  third  son  became  Walter  Steuart  of  West- 
burn,  in  East  Lothian,  by  marriage  with  the  heiress.  His 
fourth  son  became  Sir  James  Steuart  of  Goodtrees.  The 
fifth  and  sixth  were  unmarried.  The  seventh  became  Sir 
Robert  Steuart  of  Allanbank.     Sir  James  died  in  the  year 


72  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

1(581,  in  the  73d  year  of  his  age,  after  having  borne  an 
honourable  testimony  to  the  truth,  and  to  the  principles  of 
the  covenants,  on  account  of  which  he  so  severely  suffered. 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son,  Thomas,  who  was 
born  in  1631,  and  became  the  first  Baronet  in  the  family, 
having  been  invested  with  this  honour  in  the  year  1693. 
He  married  into  the  family  of  Sir  John  Elliot,  and  by  his 
lady  had  a  family  of  nine  sons  and  three  daughters.  He 
was  an  eminently  pious  man,  as  well  as  a  zealous  Presby- 
terian. The  scoffers  of  his  day  nicknamed  him  u  Gospel 
Coltness."  In  consequence  of  the  countenance  which  he  had 
given  to  the  covenanters  at  Bothwell  Bridge,  by  supplying 
them  with  food,  he  had  to  avail  himself  of  the  hiding-place 
in  the  wall  of  Allanton  house,  guarded  by  the  faithful  tailor, 
whose  services  happened  to  be  always  needed  at  Allanton 
house,  when  the  hiding-place  required  to  be  occupied.  He 
subsequently  fled  to  Holland,  as  his  estates  had  been  confis- 
cated and  gi'Ten  to  the  Earl  of  Arran,  who  afterwards  became 
Duke  of  Hamilton.  He  remained  in  Holland  till  the  year 
1687 — the  year  in  which  James  II.  granted  indulgence  to 
the  banished  to  return  home  ;  and,  through  the  kind  ser- 
vices of  William  Penn,  the  distinguished  quaker,  he  obtained 
a  pardon.  In  the  year  1689,  he  represented  North  Berwick 
in  the  convention  of  estates,  and  again  in  the  first  Parlia- 
ment of  King  William,  in  1690.  He  was  the  first  to  propose 
the  abolition  of  Episcopacy;  and  the  well-known  Act  for 
regulating  the  Church  of  Scotland  was  framed  and  proposed 
by  him.  He  was  knighted  by  the  commissioner  on  that 
occasion,  and  in  1693  created  a  Baronet.  Soon  after  this 
his  estate  was  restored,  and  he  obtained  a  grant  of  £200. 


PAKISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  73 

sterling  annually,  payable  out  of  the  revenues  of  the  Arch- 
bishopric of  Glasgow,  as  a  compensation  for  the  losses  which 
he  had  sustained  during  his  forfeiture.  He  died  in  the  year 
1698. 

Sir  Thomas  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son,  Sir  David, 
who  was  born  in  the  year  1G56,  and  married  into  the  family 
of  Wygateshaw,  but  had  no  family.  He  accompanied  his 
father  to  Holland,  in  his  banishment,  and  was  led,  in  the 
year  1685,  to  join  the  Earl  of  Argyle  in  his  unfortunate, 
and  unsuccessful,  descent  on  Scotland.  The  Earl  was  be- 
headed at  the  cross  of  Edinburgh,  and  Sir  David  was 
condemned  to  be  executed.  He  was  reprieved,  and  after- 
wards pardoned.  As  he  had  no  family,  he  sold  the  Coltness 
estate,  in  the  year  1712,  to  his  uncle,  Sir  James  Steuart  of 
Goodtrees,  Lord  Advocate  for  Scotland.  He  died  in  the 
year  1723. 

Sir  David  was  succeeded  in  his  title  by  his  uncle,  Sir 
James  Steuart  of  Goodtrees,  then  the  proprietor  of  Coltness. 
The  Goodtrees  branch,  as  already  mentioned,  originated  in 
the  marriage  of  Walter,  third  son  of  the  first  Sir  James, 
with  the  heiress  of  Goodtrees.  The  fourth  son  of  this  mar- 
riage— Sir  James — succeeded  to  the  Goodtrees  estate.  He 
was  bred  to  the  bar,  and  became  an  able  lawyer.  In  the 
year  1660,  though  only  twenty- five  years  of  age,  he  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  able  defence  of  his  father,  then  being 
prosecuted  by  the  government — a  defence  which  so  exas- 
perated the  heads  of  the  government,  that  the  young  advo- 
cate had  to  betake  himself  to  a  hiding-place.  In  the  year 
1683,  he,  along  with  his  relative,  Sir  William  Denham  of 


74  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

Wcstshield,  was  condemned,  and  his  estate  forfeited.  Two 
years  afterwards,  be  was  sentenced  to  be  executed  when- 
ever found.  He  was  also  an  occupant  of  the  hiding-place 
at  Allanton  house,  and  the  faithful  tailor  did  not  in  his  case, 
or  in  any  other,  betray  trust.  At  one  period  he  found  refuge 
in  London,  and  maintained  himself  in  rather  a  singular  man- 
ner. He  advertised  to  give  written  opinions  on  difficult  law 
cases,  at  half  the  usual  fee — -five  shillings — the  usual  fee 
then  being  half-a-guinea.  His  solutions  were  so  profound, 
and  ingenious,  as  to  obtain  him  large  employment.  The 
desire  to  find  out  this  solver  of  legal  difficulties  became  so 
strong,  as  to  oblige  him,  to  prevent  discovery,  to  return  to 
Scotland.  He  subsequently  went  to  Holland,  and  obtained 
an  introduction  to  the  Prince  of  Orange.  He  became  Lord 
Advocate  under  William  III.,  and  enjoyed  the  same  office 
under  Queen  Anne.  By  his  first  marriage  he  had  one  son 
— James  by  name — who  succeeded  him.  By  his  second 
marriage,  he  had  two  sons,  the  elder  of  whom  was  Henry 
Steuart  Barclay  of  Colernie,  in  Fife, — one  of  the  ancestors 
of  the  present  Sir  Henry  Steuart  of  Allanton.  In  the  year 
1712,  he  purchased  the  estate  of  Coltness  from  Sir  David. 
He  died  in  the  year  1713. 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Sir  James  Steuart  of 
Goodtrees  and  Coltness,  who  was  born  in  1681,  and  had 
married  into  the  family  of  Sir  Hugh  Dalrymple  of  North 
Berwick,  president  of  the  Court  of  Session.  Sir  James  was 
also  bred  to  the  bar,  and  became  as  distinguished  for  his 
Whig  principles — which  had  been  so  honourably  maintained 
by  his  ancestors — as  by  his  legal  talents.  In  the  year  1705 
he  was  created  a  Baronet — in  1709  he  became  Solicitor- 


PARISH   OF    CAMBUSNETHAN.  75 

General  for  Scotland — and  in  1713  a  representative  in  Par- 
liament for  the  county  of  Midlothian.  He  had  three  sons, 
the  youngest  of  whom  succeeded  him.  He  had  nine  daugh- 
ters. The  eldest  of  them  was  the  grandmother  of  the  late 
Admiral  Sir  Philip  Durham.  The  second,  married  Henry- 
David,  the  Earl  of  Buchan.  The  third,  married  Alexander 
Murray  of  Cringletie.  The  other  daughters  died  young, 
and  unmarried.     Sir  James  died  in  the  year  1727. 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Sir  James,  who  was  born 
in  1713.  Like  his  father  and  grandfather,  he  was  bred  to 
the  bar ;  but  surpassed  them  both  in  vigour,  and  variety  of 
talent.  Indeed,  but  for  the  part  he  was  led  to  adopt  in 
connexion  with  the  Pretender,  in  the  year  1745,  there  is  no 
doubt  he  would  have  earned  the  highest  honours  of  the  legal 
profession  in  Scotland.  Soon  after  entering  on  the  legal 
profession,  he  went  on  a  tour  to  the  continent.  This 
brought  him  into  connexion  with  several  of  the  exiled 
Jacobite  chiefs.  His  family  had  been  long  attached  to  the 
principles  of  the  Whigs,  but  he  was  induced  to  embrace  the 
cause  of  dethroned  royalty.  When  in  Rome  he  was  intro- 
duced to  Prince  Charles  Steuart ;  and  the  reception  was  so 
courteous,  that  the  youthful  Sir  James  of  Coltness  was 
entirely  fascinated  by  it.  He  returned  to  Scotland  in  1740, 
and  in  1743  married  Lady  Frances  Wemyss,  eldest  daughter 
of  the  Earl  of  Wemyss.  In  the  year  1745  "  Prince  Charlie" 
was  holding  levees,  and  receiving  adherents,  in  Holyrood 
house.  Lord  Elcho,  the  brother-in-law  of  Sir  James,  was 
attached  to  the  Prince,  and  devised  a  plan  of  having  Sir 
James,  and  the  Earl  of  Buchan,  introduced  to  the  Prince. 
The  terms  were,  that  they  were  not  by  that  introduction  to 


76  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 


be  regarded  as  pledged  to  join  his  standard.  The  Prince 
declined  to  receive  them,  on  these  terms.  The  Earl  of 
Buchan  retired,  but  Sir  James  instantly  offered  his  services 
to  the  young  Chevalier.  This  led  to  his  being  appointed  on 
an  embassy  to  the  court  of  France,  otherwise  he  might  have 
been  on  the  fatal  field  of  Culloden,  or  his  head  been  laid  on  the 
fatal  block.  Sir  James,  fortunately,  was  not  attainted;  but 
the  step  which  he  had  taken  involved  him  in  consequences 
which  kept  him  an  exile  for  nearly  twenty  years.  In  the 
year  1762,  when  residing  at  Spa,  and  during  the  war  with 
France,  he  was  suspected  of  being  a  spy,  in  the  pay  of  the 
British  government.  He  was  seized — treated  as  a  state 
prisoner — and  confined  for  sixteen  months  in  the  fortress  of 
Charlemont.  On  his  release,  flattering  prospects  were  held 
out  to  him,  on  condition  of  his  entering  the  French  service. 
The  reply  which  he  returned  to  the  proposal — though  we 
had  known  nothing  else  of  him — enables  us  to  estimate  the 
man.  "  Sir,  what  I  have  suffered  from  my  own  nation,  I 
merited  by  my  misconduct ;  what  I  have  suffered  from  yours, 
was  as  unjust  as  it  was  unwarrantable,  and  should  never 
have  been  inflicted.  I  would  as  soon  renounce  my  God,  as 
I  would  relinquish  my  country  1" 

The  prolonged  residence  of  Sir  James  on  the  continent 
was  occupied  in  study,  and  led  to  the  publication  of  several 
works  on  finance,  together  with  "  A  Defence  of  Sir  Isaac 
Newton's  Chronology."  At  the  peace  of  Paris,  in  the  year 
1763,  and  by  the  kind  entreaties  of  Lord  Barrington,  and 
Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montague,  King  George  III.  was 
induced  to  grant  a  pardon  to  Sir  James,  and  allow  him  to 
return  home.     In  1771,  by  a  deed  under  the  Great  Seal, 


PAKISH    OF    CA.MBUSNETHAN.  77 

this  pardon,  and  his  restoration  to  the  peaceful  possession  of 
his  estates  were  confirmed.  The  remaining  seventeen  years 
of  his  life  were  spent  in  literary  and  scientific  pursuits.  In 
the  retirement  of  Coltness  he  put  the  finishing  hand  to  his 
great  work,  "  An  Inquiry  into  the  Principles  of  Political 
Economy,"  which  gained  for  him  the  title  of  "  the  father  of 
Political  economy  in  Scotland."  It  appeared  in  two  quarto 
volumes,  from  the  press  of  the  Messrs.  Miller  and  Cadell  of 
Edinburgh,  who  gave  him  £200.  for  the  copyright.  It 
appeared  nine  years  before  Adam  Smith  published  his 
u  Wealth  of  Nations."  Smith  has  borrowed  largely  from 
the  writings  of  Sir  James,  and  without  acknowledgement ; 
and  it  remains  a  blemish  on  Adam  Smith's  literary  charac- 
ter, that  he  should  have  drawn  so  much  from  the  sentiments 
of  a  writer  of  whom  he  was  accustomed  to  speak  disparag- 
ingly. Sir  James  died  on  the  26th  November,  1780,  and 
was  buried  in  the  tomb  of  his  forefathers,  at  Cambusnethan 
old  church -yard. 

There  is  an  arbour  near  Coltness  house  which  Sir  James 
occupied  for  study,  and  in  which  he  spent  many  of  his 
happiest  hours  of  retirement,  both  before  his  exile  and  after 
his  return  home.  On  the  wall,  above  the  seat,  a  chrysalis 
and  two  butterflies,  emblems  of  immortality,  have  been 
sculptured  in  alto-rillevo.  Below  them,  the  following  in- 
scription, on  a  marble  slab,  was  inserted  in  the  year  1815 : — 

THE    FAVOURITE    SEAT   OF 

SIR  JAMES  AND  LADY  FRANCES  STEUART. 

Inscribed  to  their  Memory,  1815. 

Blest  and  united  by  the  ties  that  bind 
The  generous  spirit,  and  the  virtuous  mind, 


78  HISTORICAL    SKETCHES   OF   THE 

to  their  loved  homes  the  exiles  came  at  last, 
Courted  this  safe  retreat,  and  smiled  on  perils  past. 

Here,  arm  in  arm,  enjoying  and  enjoyed, 

Musing  on  life,  no  moment  misemployed, 

The  pilgrims  paused,  to  hail  the  happier  shore, 

Where  love  is  ever  young,  and  virtue  weeps  no  more. 

There  are  other  rather  interesting  and  curious  associations 
connected  with  this  arbour.  One  of  the  early  and  intimate 
associates  of  Sir  James  was  Mr.  Alexander  Trotter  of 
Midlothian.  Mr.  Trotter  died  in  early  life ;  and  on  his 
death-bed  made  a  promise  to  Sir  James,  that,  if  possible, 
he  would,  after  his  decease,  pay  him  a  visit  in  the  arbour, 
which  had  been  so  often  the  scene  of  their  retired  devotions 
and  meditations.  He  fixed  on  the  hour  of  noon  as  the  time 
for  the  interview  ;  and,  to  prevent  mistake,  that  he  would 
appear  in  the  dress  which  he  usually  wore.  Sir  James 
attached  such  importance  to  this  promise,  that  every  day 
thereafter,  and  even  under  the  debilities  of  age,  he  was 
found  at  mid-day  in  the  arbour,  expecting  the  promised  visit. 
He  always  returned  home  disappointed,  but  consoled  him- 
self by  believing  that  we  know  so  little  of  "the  other  world," 
as  not  to  be  justified,  in  saying,  that  Mr.  Trotter's  promised 
visit  was  one  impossible  for  him  to  fulfil.  This  circumstance 
became  the  foundation  of  a  popular  ballad,  to  be  obtained 
at  the  beginning  of  this  century,  from  the  budget  of  any 
travelling  packman,  entitled,  "  The  Laird  o'  Coul's  Ghost/' 

Sir  James  had  an  only  son  and  child,  the  late  Sir  James 
Steuart,  who  was  born  in  the  year  1744,  and  died  at  Chel- 
tenham, on  the  5th  August,  1839,  in  the  95th  year  of  his 
age,  the  oldest  officer  at  that  time  in  the  British  army.    He 


PARISH    OF    CAMBUSNETHAN.  7\) 

was  the  last  of  his  illustrious  house — a  house  which,  for  two 
centuries,  furnished  a  series  of  families  distinguished  for 
learning,  patriotism,  and  piety.  They  have  been  an  honour 
to  their  country;  and  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan  may  feel 
proud  to  enrol  them  on  the  list  of  her  worthies. 


80  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 


ffilje  (fom'uxiljmt  Estate. 


The  changes  through  which  the  Cam'nethan  Estate  has 
passed  during  the  last  six  hundred  years  have  been  numer- 
ous, and  are  deserving  of  being  enrolled  among  the  Antiqui- 
ties of  the  parish. 

It  has  already  been  mentioned  that,  about  the  beginning 
of  the  twelfth  century,  the  barony  of  Cambusnethan  belonged 
to  William  Finnemund,  and  subsequently  passed  into  the 
possession  of  Rudolph  de  Cler.  In  the  collection  of  royal 
charters  made  by  a  late  Earl  of  Haddington,  and  usually 
known  as  the  "  Haddington  Collection,"  there  is  one  by 
King  Robert  L,  granting  the  barony  of  Cambusnethan  to 
Sir  Robert  Baird,  on  a  reddendo  of  ten  chalders  of  wheat, 
and  ten  of  barley,  payable  yearly  at  Rutherglen.  This  was 
toward  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century.  About  this 
time  Walter  Murray  of  Tuliibardine  married  Margaret  le 
Baird  of  Cambusnethan.  Sir  Robert  Baird  erected  at 
Cam'nethan  a  large  square  tower,  of  four  stories,  which 
remained  entire  till  about  the  year  1661,  and  up  to  that 
time  was  called  "  Baird's  Tower."  It  is  probable  that  the 
Baron  of  Cambusnethan  was  among  the  number  who  swore 
fealty  to  Edward  I.  at  Norham  castle ;  and  as,  by  having 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  81 

done  so,  he  must  have  favoured  the  interests  of  Baliol,  who 
was  Edward's  nominee  to  the  Scottish  crown,  rather  than 
those  of  Bruce,  he  must,  to  some  extent,  have  been  a  marked 
and  suspected  man  by  the  patriots  of  Scotland.  The  Bairds 
were,  at  this  time,  a  distinguished  and  formidable  family. 
When  Edward  III.  was  preparing  to  invade  Scotland,  it  is 
very  likely  that  the  Bairds  were  committed  to  rally  around 
his  standard.  This  at  least  is  certain,  that,  at  a  Parliament 
held  at  Perth,  in  the  year  1340,  they  were  declared  guilty 
of  treason  to  the  Scottish  crown — their  estates  were  forfeited 
to  the  crown — and  themselves  put  to  death.  Thus  termin- 
ated the  history  of  the  Bairds  of  Cambusnethan. 

About  the  year  1345,  King  David  Bruce,  better  known 
m  Scottish  history  as  David  II.,  gave  a  donation  of  the 
barony  of  Cambusnethan  to  Sir  John  Edmonston.  The 
barony  then  held  blenche  of  the  crown,  on  condition  of  the 
proprietor  being  in  readiness,  when  the  King  passed  through 
his  estate,  to  present  to  him  a  pair  of  gilded  spurs ;  and 
two  gilded  spurs  are  the  reddendo  by  which  the  barony  still 
holds  of  the  crown.  Sir  John  Edmonston  had  an  only 
daughter,  who  was  heiress  to  the  barony.  In  October, 
1372,  John,  eldest  son  of  the  then  Baron  of  Carnwath, 
having  formed  the  acquaintanceship  of  the  heiress  of  Cam- 
busnethan, married  her.  He  became  the  sixth  Baron  of 
Linton,  in  Roxburghshire  ;  the  third  Baron  of  Carnwath  ; 
and  the  first  Baron  of  Cambusnethan,  of  the  Sommerville 
line.  At  this  period,  the  barony  of  Cambusnethan  was  so 
very  extensive  as  to  include  almost  the  whole  of  the  parfsh 
of  Cambusnethan,  quoad  civilia.  The  disponing  of  sundry 
portions  of  this  once  large  estate  piece- meal,  till,  after  the 


82  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

lapse  of  264  years,  it  entirely  passed  out  of  the  hands  of 
the  Sonimervilles,  forms  a  somewhat  tedious  story.  Space 
can  be  afforded  for  a  notice  of  only  a  few  particulars.  In 
the  year  1427,  Sir  William  Hay  of  Yester  married  a  daugh- 
ter of  the  Baron  of  Cambusnethan,  and  through  her  obtained 
lands  situated  in  a  central  district  of  the  parish.  Sir  Robert 
Logan  of  Restalrig  married  another  daughter,  and  through 
her  obtained  the  lands  of  Heatheryhill  and  Fimmington. 
The  lands  of  "  Fimmington"  embrace  the  site  of  the  original 
town  of  Wishaw,  and  may  properly  be  described  as  situated 
on  the  north-east  side  of  Main  Street,  as  far  up  as  the 
property  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Congregation ;  and 
on  the  south-west  side  of  said  street,  from  the  Glasgow  road 
upwards  toward  the  cross ;  and  the  lands  westward,  from 
the  cross  till  bounded  by  Beltonfoot  Street.  The  lands  of 
Fimmington  were  afterwards  resigned  by  him  in  favour  of 
Sir  John  of  Quothquan.  ,  Soon  after  this,  the  Baron  of 
Cambusnethan  disponed  the  lands  of  Coltness  to  Logan  of 
Restalrig,  and  by  Logan  they  were  subsequently  disponed 
to  Hamilton  of  Udston. 

In  April,  1520,  the  Baron  of  Cambusnethan  forfeited  his 
lands  and  title.  At  that  time  the  provostship  of  Edinburgh 
was  deemed  an  object  worth  contending  for,  and  enjoying, 
even  by  the  nobles  of  Scotland.  The  Earls  of  Angus  and 
of  Arran  were,  in  the  year  above  mentioned,  competitors 
for  the  civic  honours  of  the  metropolis.  The  Earl  of  Arran 
was  successful.  The  Baron  of  Cambusnethan  had  joined 
the  party  in  favour  of  the  Earl  of  Angus,  and  felt  so  incensed 
by  defeat,  as  actually  to  assault  the  Earl  of  Arran  on  the 
High  Street  of  Edinburgh,  and  forcibly  drive  him  and  his 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  83 

friends  from  the  city,  and  for  a  time  to  retain  possession  of 
it.  This  daring  outrage  was  the  occasion  of  his  forfeiture, 
and  banishment.  On  the  19th  November,  1524,  James  V., 
by  Act  of  Parliament,  gave  the  barony  of  Cambusnethan, 
with  the  tower  and  fortalice,  to  James  Hamilton  of  Fyneart. 
Hamilton  of  Fyneart  belonged  to  the  Douglas  family,  and 
was  an  extensive  proprietor  in  Clydesdale.  He  erected 
Craignethan  Castle.  About  twenty  years  afterwards,  Som- 
merville  was  restored  to  his  title  and  estates. 

In  briefly  noticing  how  the  large  estate  of  Cambusnethan 
gradually  passed  away  from  the  Sommervilles,  it  may  be 
mentioned,  that  the  lands  of  Crindledyke  and  Branchelburn 
were  disponed  to  the  laird  of  Lauchop — the  lands  of  Green- 
head  to  Koberton  of  Earnock — the  lands  of  Wishaw,  Stane, 
and  Watstein,  to  Hamilton  of  Udston — the  lands  of  Mur- 
rays  and  Muiredge  to  Matthew  Steuart — the  Overtown  of 
Cam'nethan  to  Sir  John  Hamilton  of  Biel — the  Nethermains 
of  Cam'nethan,  Garrion-mill,  Coltness-mili  and  town,  to 
Steuart  of  Coltness — the  Overmains  of  Cam'nethan,  Nether- 
ton,  and  the  lands  of  Green,  to  Patrick  Hamilton,  bailie  in 
Hamilton :  and,  in  1649,  so  very  impoverished  had  the 
Baron  of  Cam'nethan  become,  that  he  sold  the  manor-house 
and  adjoining  lands — the  only  portion  of  the  estate  which 
he  had  managed  to  retain— to  his  relative,  Sommerville  of 
Drum.  It  was  Sommerville  of  Drum  who  had  the  quarrel 
with  Allanton,  and  the  Presbytery  of  Hamilton,  about  his 
right  to  bury  "  in  the  choir,"  and  who  resisted,  as  long  as 
he  could,  the  erection  of  a  new  church  on  the  lands  of 
Greenhead.  The  last  Baron  of  Cam'nethan,  of  the  Som- 
merville line,  died  at  Edinburgh  in  1659,  and  was  buried  in 


84  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

Greyfriar's  church-yard,  little  respected  by  his  relatives,  a3 
he  had  squandered  his  estate,  and  had  nothing  to  leave  to 
them.  Sommerville  of  Drum  seems  to  have  kept  the  estate 
only  twelve  years,  as  he  disponed  it,  in  the  year  1661,  to 
Sir  John  Harper,  who  was  then  Sheriff-depute  of  the  county. 
Baird's  tower,  and  the  buildings  which  the  earlier  Barons 
Sommerville  had  clustered  around  it,  were  so  seriously 
injured,  by  the  decaying  hand  of  time,  when  Sir  John 
Harper  bought  the  estate,  that  he  found  it  necessary  to  take 
them  entirely  down,  and  on  their  site  to  erect  a  stately 
mansion,  which,  after  standing  for  about  160  years,  was 
unfortunately  burned  down.  Upon  the  death  of  Sir  John 
Harper,  the  property  came  into  the  possession  of  Lockhart 
of  Castlehill,  with  whose  descendants  it  has  since  continued. 

When  Robert  Bruce  was  dying,  in  the  year  1329,  he 
charged  his  faithful  servant,  Sir  James  Douglas,  that,  as 
soon  as  he  was  dead,  he  should  take  his  heart  out  of  his 
body  and  cause  it  to  be  embalmed,  and,  taking  out  of  the 
royal  treasure  what  was  needful  for  the  due  execution  of  the 
royal  will,  proceed  with  a  becoming  retinue  to  Palestine, 
and  deposit  the  heart  in  the  holy  sepulchre  of  our  Saviour, 
at  Jerusalem,  Sir  James  executed  the  preliminary  instruc- 
tions of  his  royal  master.  He  set  sail  for  Palestine,  with  a 
princely  retinue.  On  sailing  along  the  coast  of  Spain,  he 
landed  at  Seville ;  and,  learning  that  the  King  of  Spain 
was  then  at  war  with  the  Moors,  he  seems  to  have  forgotten 
the  object  of  his  mission,  as  he  joined  the  Spanish  army,  to 
fight  against  the  infidels.  He  had  the  embalmed  heart  of 
Bruce  locked  to  his  body.  In  one  of  the  engagements  with 
the  Moors  he  was  wounded,  and  many  of  the  brave  Scottish 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  85 

knights  who  accompanied  him  were  slain.  On  discovering 
that  he  had  been  wounded,  he  took  from  his  neck  the  sacred 
charge  entrusted  to  him,  and  throwing  the  silver  casket 
before  him  on  the  battle  field,  exclaimed :  "  Onward,  thou 
noble  heart,  as  thou  ever  wert  wont  to  do.  Douglas  shall 
follow  thee,  or  die  !"  He  then  turned  to  rescue  Sir  William 
Saint  Clair  of  Roslin,  whom  he  saw  in  jeopardy ;  but  while 
attempting  it,  he  fell  under  the  sabres  of  his  enemies.  Next 
day,  the  silver  casket  containing  the  heart  of  Bruce,  and  the 
body  of  Douglas,  were  found  on  the  field ;  and  the  surviving 
Scottish  knights,  having  claimed  both,  immediately  consulted 
how  they  should  then  act.  They  resolved  to  desist  from 
the  mission  to  Palestine,  as  their  leader  had  fallen,  and  the 
vow  he  had  taken  to  the  dying  King  could  not  now  be 
fulfilled ;  and,  to  return  to  Scotland.  They  brought  the 
heart,  and  the  body  of  "the  Good  Sir  James"  with  them. 
The  heart  was  ultimately  deposited  near  the  altar  of  the 
Abbey  of  Melrose,  and  the  body  of  Sir  James  in  the  tomb 
of  his  fathers  at  Douglas. 

One  of  the  Scottish  knights  who  accompanied  Sir  James 
Douglas  on  his  mission  to  Palestine,  was  Sir  Simon  Locard 
of  Lee — a  name  of  early  distinction,  and  of  an  antiquity 
which  carries  us  back  to  the  reign  of  David  I.  Sir  Simon 
was  spared  to  return  to  Scotland  with  the  heart  of  Bruce, 
and  from  this  circumstance  was  induced  to  change  his 
name  from  Locard  to  Lockheart — to  assume  a  heart  within 
a  lock  as  part  of  his  armorial  bearings,  and  the  following 
motto  :  "  Corda  serrata  pando."  Following  the  descent 
from  Sir  Simon,  we  come  to  Sir  Allan  Lockhart,  who  was 
slain  in  the  battle  of  Pinkie,  in  the  year  1547,  fighting  for 


SG  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES  OF   THE 

Queen  Mary.  Sir  Allan's  grandson,  James,  was  knighted 
by  James  VI. ;  whose  son,  Sir  James,  became  a  Lord  of 
the  Court  of  Session,  and,  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.,  Lord- 
Justice-Clerk,  under  the  title  of  Lord  Lee.  Lord  Lee  had 
several  sons.  The  third  was  Sir  John  Lockhart  of  Castle- 
hill,  who,  by  Charles  II.,  was  appointed  a  Senator  of  the 
College  of  Justice,  and  a  Lord  of  Justiciary.  Sir  John 
Lockhart  of  Castlehill  had  an  only  daughter,  who  was  his 
heiress.  She  married  Sir  John  Sinclair,  Baronet  of  Steven- 
son, and  had  issue.  The  second  son  of  this  marriage,  John 
Sinclair,  succeeded  to  the  Castlehill  title  and  estates,  on 
which  account  he  assumed  the  surname  of  Lockhart.  He 
was  the  progenitor  of  the  present  proprietor  of  Cam'nethan 
estate,  James  Sinclair  Lockhart,  Esquire  of  Castlehill. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  87 


pjemoir  of  %  gdjjata  BzmQt. 


We  shall  conclude  our  Sketches  of  the  Antiquities  of  the 
parish  with  a  Memoir  of  the  Belhaven  Peerage. 

When  James  VI.  succeeded  to  the  crown  of  England,  his 
eldest  son,  Henry,  then  in  his  ninth  year,  became  Prince  of 
Wales.  Sir  Robert  Douglas  of  Spot,  in  the  county  of 
Haddington,  became  page  of  honour  to  the  Prince,  and 
afterwards  Master  of  the  Horse.  On  the  death  of  the 
Prince  of  Wales,  he  became  one  of  the  Lords  of  the  Koyal 
bed-chamber — an  office  which  was  continued  to  him  by 
Charles  I.  Sir  James  Balfour,  Lord  Lyon,  King-at-Arms 
under  Charles  I.,  mentions  in  his  "Annals  of  Scotland," 
that  "  Charles  I.,  to  honour  his  coronation,  creatted  1  Mar- 
quesse,  10  Earles,  2  Viscounts,  and  8  Lordes,  on  the  17 
Junij,  1633."  One  of  the  Viscounts  was  uSir  Robert 
Douglas  of  Spote,  knight,  creatted  Viscount  Belheauen, 
Lord  Douglas  of  Spote."  Balfour  has  the  following  notice 
of  the  death  of  Viscount  Belhaven,  in  the  year  1639  : — 
"  Obitts,  this  zeire,  of  eminent  personages,  wer,  first,  in  the 
mounthe  of  Januarij,  1639,  Robert  Douglas,  Wiscount 
Belheauen,  sometyme  Master  of  the  Horses  to  Henry,  Prince 
of  Wales,  quho  departed  this  lyffe  at  his  dwelling-house, 


88  HISTORICAL  SKETCHES   OF   THE 

neire  Glasgow,  the  5  day  of  this  mounthe,  to  quhosse  mem- 
orey  his  heires  lies  erected  a  staitly  monument  of  whyte 
marble  in  the  Abey  Churche  of  Holyrudhouse."  The  house 
which  belonged  to  Viscount  Belhaven,  and  in  which  he 
died,  was  in  Gorbals,  Glasgow.  It  still  exists ;  a  fine  old 
baronial  mansion,  on  the  south-east  side  of  Main  Street. 
Viscount  Belhaven  left  no  issue,  and  the  title  became 
extinct. 

We  shall  now  give  a  sketch  of  the  present  peerage,  and 
of  the  ancestry  of  the  present  Lord  Belhaven.  In  tracing 
back  the  ancestry,  we  must  go  as  far  as  the  commencement 
of  the  fourteenth  century.  About  the  year  1300,  King 
Robert  created  the  first  Lord  Cadzow,  the  founder  of  the 
house  of  Hamilton.  On  the  28th  June,  1445,  the  sixth 
Lord  Cadzow  was  created  Lord  Hamilton.  The  second 
Lord  Hamilton  was  created  Earl  of  Arran,  on  the  10th 
August,  1503.  A  brother  of  the  first  Earl  of  Arran  was 
Sir  John  Hamilton  of  Broomhill,  who  married  the  heiress  of 
Hamilton  of  Udston.  He  died  about  the  year  1500.  The 
offspring  of  this  marriage  was  three  sons.  The  eldest  son 
became  John  Hamilton  of  Coltness — the  second,  by  his 
marriage  with  the  heiress  of  Barncleuth,  became  Sir  James 
Hamilton  of  Barncleuth — and  the  third  son  became  William 
Hamilton  of  Wishaw.  It  was  the  Barncleuth  branch  which 
furnished  the  first  Lord  Belhaven,  who  was  Sir  John 
Hamilton  of  Biel,  and  was  the  great-grandson  of  Sir  John 
Hamilton  of  Broomhill,  the  brother  of  the  first  Earl  of 
Arran.  The  Hamilton  family  were  warmly  attached  to  the 
person  and  cause  of  Charles  I.  When  the  monarch  had 
openly  proclaimed  war  against  his  English  Parliament,  he 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  89 

had  ardent  supporters  in  his  Scottish  subjects.  On  one 
occasion,  a  large  body  of  horse  were  collected  in  Scotland, 
and  were  placed  under  the  command  of  Sir  John  Hamilton. 
They  marched  towards  England.  They  went  thither  by 
way  of  Berwick.  On  approaching  the  Scotch  gate  of  that 
old,  and  still  walled  border  town,  the  advanced  guard  of  the 
troop  halted.  Sir  John  instantly  rode  up,  and  enquired 
into  the  occasion  of  their  having  halted.  On  being  informed 
that  they  had  hesitated  to  enter  the  gate,  till  they  had 
consulted,  whether  they  should  first  ask  permission  from 
the  Governor  of  the  town,  and  obtain  it,  Sir  John  at  once 
said,  "  Ride  through,"  and  the  order  was  obeyed.  Sir  John 
displayed  great  valour  in  battle,  as  well  as  devotedness  to 
his  King ;  and,  in  acknowledgement  of  both,  the  Sovereign 
created  him  Lord  Belhaven  and  Stenton,  on  the  15th 
December,  1647.  In  token  of  his  bravery,  he  was  empow- 
ered to  carry  a  sword  on  his  escutcheon,  and  to  have  horses 
for  his  supporters.  The  crest  is  a  horse's  head,  couped 
and  bridled,  with  the  motto,  "  Ride  through  ;"  which  motto 
was  selected,  because  these  were  the  words  which  he  had 
uttered  when  ordering  his  troop  to  enter  the  gate  of  Ber- 
wick— words  which  were  by  the  monarch  deemed  indicative 
of  the  prompt  decision  to  which  Lord  Belhaven  came,  on 
the  occasion  referred  to. 

The  first  Lord  Belhaven  married  Margaret,  daughter  of 
James,  Marquess  of  Hamilton,  and  had  a  family  of  three 
daughters.  He  resided  at  Barncleuth,  and  constructed  the 
beautiful  terraced  gardens  there,  which  to  this  day  attract 
so  many  visitors.  He  had  a  taste  for  gardening,  and  very 
much  improved  it  by  his  occasional  visits  to  Holland,  which 


90  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 


I 


occasioned  the  introduction  of  the  Dutch  style,  the  promi- 
nent feature  of  the  gardens  to  the  present  day.  During  the 
Commonwealth,  when  heavy  fines  were  imposed  on  all  who 
had  defended  the  cause  of  Charles  L,  Lord  Belhaven  was 
among  the  number  on  whom  the  impost  fell  very  heavily. 
To  avoid  payment,  he  determined  to  go  out  of  the  way  for 
a  time.  His  intention  was  to  live  retired  in  England; 
concluding  that  concealment  might  be  better  effected  there, 
than  in  Scotland.  Having  communicated  his  designs  to 
Lady  Belhaven,  who  was  to  remain  at  Barncleuth,  he  took 
with  him  one  servant,  and  travelled  towards  England,  by 
way  of  the  Solway  sands.  He  had  frequently  done  so  on 
his  visits  to  England,  and  was  acquainted  with  the  safe  line 
of  that  rather  hazardous  passage.  On  reaching  the  sands, 
he  thought  fit  to  dismiss  his  servant,  instructing  him  to 
return  home,  with  a  letter  to  Lady  Belhaven.  On  reaching 
home,  the  servant  reported  that,  on  crossing  the  Solway 
sands,  his  master,  horse  and  all,  disappeared.  Sir  James 
Balfour,  under  date  3d  July,  1652,  reports  the  story  in  the 
following  terms  :  "  Sir  John  Hamiltone,  Lord  Beilheauen, 
quho  had  married  the  daughter  of  James,  2d  Marques  of 
Hamilton,  and  widow  of  Lord  Sal  ton,  miserablie  perished 
in  the  sinking  sands  of  Solway,  going  towardes  England, 
having  mistaken  the  safe  way,  and  trusting  too  much  to 
himselve  without  a  gyde.  The  man  was  a  werey  gallant 
gentleman,  and  much  regretted  by  all  who  knew  him."  The 
present  Lord  Belhaven  mentioned  to  the  author,  that  Sir 
Walter  Scott  informed  him,  that  the  story,  as  recorded  by 
Balfour,  was  fixed  on  as  the  foundation  of  a  similar  story 
which  has  been  introduced  into  the  "Bride  of  Lammermoor," 
accounting  for  the  disappearance  of  the  Master  of  Eavens- 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  9l 

wood.  Lord  Belhaven  did  not  perish  in  the  Solway  sands. 
He  had  crossed  these  sands  too  often  to  be  mistaken  as  to 
the  line  of  safe  footing,  and  was  characterized  for  caution. 
He  found  his  way  up  to  London,  and  thence  down  to  Rich- 
mond,  where  he  considered  he  would  have  better  opportun- 
ities of  wearing  his  disguise.  Attracted  by  the  sylvan 
scenery  of  Richmond  park,  and  with  the  view  of  gratifying 
his  favourite  tastes  incognito,  he  engaged  himself  to  be  a 
gardener.  He  had  not  forgotten  that  his  royal  master  had, 
at  one  time,  to  assume  the  disguise  of  a  wood-cutter,  and,  at 
another,  that  of  a  travelling  servant.  The  intelligence 
manifested  by  the  Scotch  gardener  soon  won  towards  him 
the  respect  of  his  employers.  He  managed  to  get  himself 
repeatedly  appointed  to  go  over  to  Holland,  to  obtain  choice 
seeds  and  bulbous  roots.  His  real  motive,  on  occasion  of 
these  visits,  was  to  have  an  opportunity  of  meeting  with 
the  exiled  Scottish  nobility,  and  especially  with  Charles  II., 
who  was  also  then  an  exile  in  Holland.  Cromwell  died  in 
the  year  1658 ;  and  his  son,  Richard,  who  succeeded  him  in 
the  Protectorate,  having  held  office  for  little  more  than 
seven  months,  abdicated,  and  retired  into  private  life.  In 
the  year  1660,  Charles  was  restored  to  the  throne  of  his 
fathers ;  and  Lord  Belhaven,  with  others,  returned  home  to 
enjoy  their  estates  in  peace. 

It  has  been  already  mentioned  that  Lord  Belhaven's 
family  consisted  of  three  daughters.  In  the  year  1675, 
feeling  himself  to  be  an  old  man,  and  having  no  male  issue, 
he  thought  proper  to  resign  the  honours  of  the  peerage  into 
the  hands  of  the  sovereign.  Charles  II.  declined  receiving 
them ;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  granted  a  fresh  patent,  under 


92  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

date  15th  December,  1675,  continuing  the  peerage  to  Lord 
Belhaven  for  life,  and,  upon  his  decease,  granting  its  honours 
to  the  husband  of  one  of  his  grand-daughters.  Lord  Bel- 
haven  died  in  the  year  1679,  and,  according  to  the  limitation 
in  the  charter  of  1675,  the  title  devolved  upon  the  eldest 
son  of  Lord  Pressmennan,  one  of  the  Senators  of  the  College 
of  Justice,  who  became  the  second  Lord  Belhaven. 

Sir  John  Hamilton  of  Biel,  who  became  the  second  Lord 
Belhaven,  was  a  Lord  of  the  Treasury  in  1704,  and  took  a 
decided  stand  in  opposing  the  Union  of  the  crowns  in  1706. 
His  history  was  a  stirring  one,  and  was  somewhat  melan- 
choly. He  had  been  Lord  Belhaven  only  two  years,  when 
the  oath  was  framed  which  was  called  "the  Test  ;*'  which 
was  obviously  designed  to  crush  the  spirit,  and  extinguish 
the  cause,  of  the  covenanting  party  in  Scotland.  This  oath 
has  been  characterized  by  Wodrow  as  "  the  most  complex 
and  self- contradictory  of  oaths — without  a  parallel  among 
the  oaths  forced  upon  a  protesting  nation."  Many  of  the 
best  men  among  the  Scottish  nobles  were  opposed  to  it. 
The  Earl  of  Argyle  having  refused  to  take  it,  without  explan- 
ations, was  accused  of  treason,  and  had  to  pay  the  penalty 
of  this  alleged  crime  by  laying  his  head  on  the  block. 
During  the  discussions  which  "  the  test "  occasioned  in  the 
Scottish  Parliament,  Lord  Belhaven  expressed  himself  to 
the  following  effect,  that  "  in  it  he  saw  a  way  for  securing 
religion  among  the  subjects  themselves,  but  he  did  not  see 
his  way  for  securing  our  religion,  against  a  Popish  and 
fanatical  successor  to  the  crown."  For  these  expressions  he 
was  at  once  committed  a  prisoner  to  the  castle  of  Edinburgh, 
and  accused  of  treason.    In  his  defence,  he  pled  the  warmth 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  93 

of  liis  national  feelings,  and  admitted  that,  under  their  im- 
pulse, he  may  have  been  led  to  express  himself  too  strongly 
— threw  himself  on  the  mercy  of  the  ruling  power — was 
pardoned  — and  restored  to  his  seat  in  Parliament.  After 
all,  he  was  on  the  right  side,  and  had  only  spoken  the  truth, 
as  soon  came  to  be  too  plainly  verified.  In  January,  1689, 
he  was  one  of  the  Scottish  nobles  who  went  up  to  London, 
to  assist  in  settling  the  crown  on  William  and  Mary.  During 
the  same  year  he  commanded  a  troop  of  horse  at  the  battle 
of  Killiecrankie — the  battle  in  which  the  notorious  Claver- 
house  was  slain.  On  the  death  of  William,  and  the  accession 
of  Anne  to  the  crown,  proposals  were  submitted  to  unite  the 
crown  of  Scotland  to  that  of  England.  Two- thirds  of  the 
people  of  Scotland  were  hostile  to  the  measure ;  looking  on 
it  as  a  surrender  of  their  independence.  In  the  midst  of  an 
animated  debate  on  the  proposal,  on  the  floor  of  the  old 
Parliament-house  of  Edinburgh,  the  patriotism  and  indig- 
nation of  Lord  Belhaven  burst  forth.  On  that  occasion  he 
spoke  as  follows  : — 

"  Where  are  the  Douglases,  the  Grahams,  the  Campbells, 
our  peers  and  chieftains,  who  vindicated  by  their  swords 
from  the  usurpation  of  the  Edwards,  the  independence  of 
their  country,  which  their  sons  are  about  to  forfeit  by  a 
single  vote  ?  I  see  the  English  constitution  remaining  firm  ; 
the  same  trading  companies,  laws,  and  judicatures ;  whilst 
ours  are  either  subjected  to  new  regulations,  or  are  annihilated 
for  ever.  And  for  what? — that  we  maybe  admitted  to 
the  honour  of  paying  their  old  arrears,  and  presenting  a  few 
witnesses  to  attest  the  new  debts,  which  they  may  be  pleased 
to  contract !  Good  God !  is  this  an  entire  surrender  ?  My 
heart  bursts  with  indignation   and  grief,  at  the  triumph 


94  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF  THE 

which  the  English  will  obtain  to-day,  over  a  fierce  and  war- 
like nation,  which  has  struggled  to  maintain  its  independence 
so  long !  But,  if  England  should  offer  us  our  own  conditions, 
never  will  I  consent  to  the  surrender  of  our  sovereignty, 
without  which,  unless  the  contracting  parties  remain  inde- 
pendent, there  is  no  security  different  from  his,  who  stipulates 
for  the  preservation  of  his  property  when  he  becomes  a 
slave!" 

However  much  these  sentiments  may  be  admired,  on 
account  of  the  patriotism  which  they  breathe,  together  with 
the  eloquence  of  their  appeal  to  Scottish  hearts,  the  perora- 
tion of  that  impassioned  address  must  be  given,  for  the  sake 
of  the  classic  taste  which  Lord  Belhaven  displayed : — 

"  I  see  our  ancient  mother,  Caledonia,  like  Caesar,  sitting 
in  the  midst  of  our  senate,  looking  mournfully  around, 
covering  herself  with  her  royal  garments,  and  breathing  out 
her  last  words,  And  thou  too,  my  son !  while  she  attends 
the  fatal  blow  from  our  hands." 

For  these  expressions — creditable  alike  to  the  head  and 
heart  of  the  patriotic  Belhaven — he  was  ordered  into  cus- 
tody. He  pled,  that  his  position,  and  ardour  of  feeling, 
should  be  accepted  as  his  apology,  if  he  had  been  guilty  of 
any  crime.  The  apology  was  accepted,  and  he  was  liberated. 
In  the  spring  of  1708  there  was  an  attempt  made  by  the 
French  to  land  the  Chevalier  St.  George  on  the  shores  of 
Scotland.  Lord  Belhaven  was  suspected  of  being  in  the 
plot,  and  was  again  made  a  prisoner.  Whether  there  were 
sufficient  grounds  for  his  apprehension  cannot  now  be  deter- 
mined, as  the  charge  never  came  to  a  legal  proof.  He  was, 
however,  carried  a  prisoner  to  London ;  and  being  publicly 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  95 

led  along  its  streets  to  the  Tower — unable  to  bear  up  under 
the  disgrace — his  patriotic  spirit  burst  within  him.  He  was 
seized  with  brain  fever,  and  died  on  the  21st  June,  1708. 

His  eldest  son,  John,  became  the  third  Lord  Belhaven. 
He  was  one  of  the  representative  Peers  of  Scotland  in  the 
Parliament  of  1715 — the  year  of  the  first  rebellion — during 
which  year  he  was  created  a  Lord  of  the  bed-chamber. 
He  commanded  the  East  Lothian  troop  of  horse  at  the 
battle  of  Sheriifmuir,  where  he  displayed  great  bravery. 
In  the  year  1721,  he  was  appointed  Governor  of  the  island 
of  Barbadoes.  On  his  voyage  thither — at  midnight,  on 
the  17th  November — the  vessel  struck  on  the  Stag-rocks, 
near  the  Lizard  point.  His  Lordship,  with  the  whole  crew 
and  passengers,  to  the  number  of  240  persons — with  the 
exception  of  one  individual — perished. 

His  eldest  son,  John,  became  fourth  Lord  Belhaven.  He 
was  created  General  of  the  Mint,  and  appointed  one  of  the 
Trustees  for  the  encouragement  of  trade  and  fisheries  in 
Scotland.  He  was  unmarried,  and  died  at  Newcastle  on 
the  28th  August,  1764. 

His  brother,  James,  succeeded  him,  as  fifth  Lord  Bel- 
haven. He  was  entered  a  member  of  the  Faculty  of 
Advocates  in  the  year  1728.  He  was  Sheriff-Depute  of 
Haddington  in  the  year  1747.  He  also  was  unmarried. 
He  died  on  the  25th  January,  1777. 

We  must  now  go  back,  and  place  on  record  another 
notice  of  the  patriotic  John,  second  Lord  Belhaven.    Jn  the 


96  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

year  1701,  lie  executed  a  deed  of  entail,  settling  the  estates 
on  the  heirs  male  of  his  body,  and  failing  them,  on  the  heirs 
female,  to  the  exclusion  of  their  husbands.  The  fifth  Lord 
Belhaven  was  unmarried ;  and  as  the  whole  male  descen- 
dants of  the  second  Lord's  father,  Lord  Pressmennan,  had 
entirely  failed,  the  family  estates,  which  were  of  great  value, 
devolved  upon  the  nearest  female  heir,  Mrs.  Mary  Hamilton 
Nisbet  of  Pentcaitland.  She  was  accordingly  served  heir 
to  James,  fifth  Lord  Belhaven,  on  the  3d  December,  1783. 
She  thus  became  heiress  to  the  Belhaven  estates,  and  we 
must  now  go  in  search  of  an  heir  to  the  Belhaven  peerage. 

It  will  now  be  necessary  to  bring  to  recollection  that  the 
first  Lord  Belhaven  was,  on  the  father's  side,  descended 
from  the  Hamiltons  of  Broomhill,  and,  on  the  mother's  side, 
from  the  Hamiltons  of  Udston.  John  Hamilton  of  TJdston 
had  three  sons.  The  eldest  became  John  Hamilton  of 
Coltness — the  Coltness  estate  being  then  the  property  of 
his  father.  The  second  son,  by  marriage  with  the  heiress 
of  Barncleuth,  became  James  Hamilton  of  Barncleuth ;  and 
the  third  son  became  William  Hamilton  of  Wishaw.  It 
will  be  proper,  further,  to  bring  to  recollection  that,  as  the 
first  Lord  Belhaven  had  no  male  issue,  Charles  I.  was 
pleased  to  continue  the  peerage  in  the  person  of  the  husband 
of  one  of  his  grand-daughters.  This  grand-daughter  repre- 
sented the  Barncleuth  branch,  which  furnished  the  third, 
fourth,  and  fifth  Lords  Belhaven,  in  the  last  of  whom  the 
male  issue,  in  the  Barncleuth  line,  failed.  According  to 
the  usual  course  of  descent  established  by  the  entail  law  of 
Scotland,  in  the  case  of  their  having  been  three  brothers — 
as  was  the  case  now  in  dispute — if  there  should  be  a  failure 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  97 

of  male  heirs  in  the  family  of  the  middle  brother,  then  the 
male  heir  of  the  third  brother  is  entitled  to  succeed  in 
preference  to  the  male  heir  of  the  oldest  brother.  The  claim 
to  the  peerage,  however,  was  litigated.  William  Hamilton, 
captain  in  the  44th  Regiment  of  foot,  claimed  to  be  lineally 
descended  from,  and  heir  male  of,  John  Hamilton  ofColtness. 
Upon  this  claim  he  assumed  the  title  of  Lord  Belhaven,  and 
voted  upon  it  at  the  election  of  Representative  Peers,  in  the 
year  1790.  This  claim  and  vote  were  disputed,  by  the 
Attorney- General,  on  behalf  of  the  male  heir  of  William 
Hamilton  of  Wishaw.  On  the  5th  January,  1793,  the 
Lords'  Committee  of  Privileges  unanimously  decided  that 
the  vote  given  by  William  Hamilton,  in  1790,  was  a  bad 
vote — a  decision  which  was  confirmed  by  the  House  of 
Peers.  Immediately  upon  this  confirmation  having  been 
declared,  W7illiam  Hamilton  of  Wishaw,  son  and  heir  of  the 
deceased  Robert  Hamilton  of  Wishaw,  petitioned  the  crown 
for  the  dignity  and  title  of  Lord  Belhaven  and  Stenton. 
The  petition  was  referred  to  the  House  of  Lords,  and,  on 
having  been  fully  considered,  the  claim  was  determined  in 
his  favour,  on  the  25th  April,  1799. 

It  will  now  be  proper  to  give  a  brief  sketch  of  the  Wishaw 
family. 

The  founder  of. the  Hamiltons  of  Wishaw  was  William, 
youngest  son  of  Hamilton  of  Udston.  He  died  in  the  year 
1624.  He  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  surviving  son, 
William,  who  died,  at  a  very  advanced  age,  in  the  year 
1728.  His  eldest  son  having  predeceased  him,  the  estate, 
in   1726,  was  inherited  by  his  grand-son,  William,  who 

G 


98  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES. 

married  the  grand-daughter  of  John,  seventh  Earl  of  Marr, 
by  whom  he  had  a  numerous  family.  This  accounts  for  the 
armorial  bearings  of  the  Erskines  of  Marr  being  inserted, 
with  those  of  the  Hamiltons  of  Wishaw,  on  the  front  wall 
of  Wishaw  house.  In  the  year  1756,  William  Hamilton  of 
Wishaw  was  killed  by  a  fall  from  his  horse,  returning  from 
Hamilton,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  second  son,  who  died, 
unmarried,  in  the  year  1763.  In  that  year  Kobert  Hamilton 
succeeded  his  brother.  The  fifth  Lord  Belhaven  died  in 
1777,  and  in  that  year  Robert  Hamilton  of  Wishaw  was 
entitled  to  be  called  the  sixth  Lord  Belhaven.  However, 
he  did  not  assume  the  title — it  having,  as  we  have  seen, 
been  claimed  by  a  descendant  of  the  Coltness  line.  He 
died  at  Wishaw,  on  the  27th  March,  1784,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  eldest  son,  William,  who  was  born  on  the 
13th  January,  1765,  and,  on  his  father's  decease,  was 
entitled  to  be  called  the  seventh  Lord  Belhaven.  He  did 
not,  however,  assume  it,  as  the  claim  to  the  title  was 
disputed,  and  a  decision  had  not  yet  been  given.  He 
assumed  it,  however,  on  the  25th  April,  1799,  when  the 
House  of  Lords  determined  in  his  favour.  He  died  on  the 
29th  October,  1814,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son, 
Robert-Montgomery,  the  present  peer,  as  eighth  Lord 
Belhaven. 

His  Lordship  was  born  in  the  year  1793.  In  the  year 
1831,  he  was  created  a  British  Peer,  under,  the  title  of  Baron 
Hamilton  of  Wishaw. — And  long  may  his  Lordship  live  to 
enjoy  the  honours  of  the  peerage,  and  share  in  the  best 
wishes  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Burgh  of  Wishaw. 


THE   SHAEE 

WHICH   THE 

PARISH   OF  CAMBUSN ETHAN 

HAD   IN   THE 

TEOUBLES  AND   SUFFEKINGS 

OF   THE 

PERSECUTING  PERIOD. 


%\t  |3mmtthtg  ^txxob. 


Several  years  ago,  a  friend  of  the  author's,  on  a  tour 
through  the  south  of  Ireland,  found  it  necessary  on  one 
occasion  to  travel  all  night,  so  as  to  fulfil  an  engagement 
next  day.  The  only  conveyance  was  by  one  of  Bianconi's 
cars.  A  great  portion  of  the  way  lay  along  a  bleak,  deso- 
late heath.  About  midnight  the  car  stopped,  and  a  fierce- 
looking  person  took  a  seat  upon  it.  In  his  appearance 
there  was  nothing  to  encourage  conversation,  but  he  seemed 
determined  to  break  silence  by  asking  his  fellow-traveller, 
11  Aren't  you  afraid,  Sir,  to  travel  over  this  country  at 
this  hour  of  the  night  ?"  "  Not  in  the  slightest,"  was  the 
reply.  Silence  was  for  a  time  continued.  The  question, 
certainly,  was  not  one  very  inviting  to  conversation,  especi- 
ally when  the  outward  appearance  of  the  proposer  of  it,  and 
the  circumstances  under  which  it  was  put,  were  taken  into 
account.  After  a  brief  interval,  the  question  was  repeated, 
Jn  tones  fully  sterner  than  before.  There  was  enough  to 
excite  fear,  but  it  was  the  best  policy  not  to  manifest  it. 
It  is  a  characteristic  of  a  Scotchman  to  answer  one  question 
by  proposing  another.  u  What  should  I  be  afraid  of?" 
was  the  reply,  on  the  question  being  repeated.  "  You're  a 
Scotchman,  I  perceive,  and  may  be  none  the  worse  for  a 


102  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OP   THE 

bit  of  advice.  In  Ireland,  Sir,  don't  take  a  man's  farm  over 
his  head,  and  don't  meddle  with  his  religion,  and  nobody- 
will  touch  a  hair  of  your  head."  The  second  part  of  the 
advice  will  be  found  to  have  a  practical  value  in  other 
countries,  as  much  so  as  in  Ireland.  History  furnishes 
ample  proof,  that  men  who  value  their  religious  privileges 
will  resist  an  attack  on  them,  probably  with  as  much  firm- 
ness as  any  attack  made  on  their  principles.  We  need  not  go 
for  an  illustration  beyond  what  has  been  called  the  Cove- 
nanting Period,  in  the  history  of  our  own  country. 

We  now  enter  on  the  enquiry,  How  far  the  Parish 
of  Cambusnethan  had  a  share  in  the  Troubles  and  I 
Sufferings  of  the  Persecuting  Period? 

Before  entering  on  the  minuter,  and  more  deeply  inter- 
esting details,  it  will  be  proper  to  make  a  few  preliminary 
statements.  This  is  the  more  necessary,  that,  from  the 
outset,  we  may  have  distinctly  before  us  the  circumstances 
which  became  the  occasion  of  the  Troubles  and  Sufferings 
of  that  eventual  period. 

-  -  Popery — as  the  national  form  of  religion — was  abolished 
in  Scotland,  by  a  vote  of  Parliament,  in  the  year  1560. 
The  first  thing,  of  any  importance,  which  the  Parliament 
proceeded  to,  on  passing  this  vote,  was  to  draw  up  and 
sanction  "  A  Confession  of  Faith."  The  next  thing  was,  to 
agree  upon  a  form  of  government  by  which  the  church 
should  henceforth  be  regulated.  The  Parliament  having 
taken  into  consideration  that  the  Prelacy  of  the  English 
church  was,  in  its  rule,  too  much  akin  to  the  Papal  model — 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  103 

that  the  voice  of  the  people  was  not  duly  recognised  by 
Prelacy — and  that  the  government  of  the  church  was  too 
delusively  in  the  hands  of  bishops  and  dignitaries — resolved 
to  adopt  the  Presbyterian  form  of  government,  because  it 
secured  the  rights  and  liberties  of  the  people,  and  placed  all 
thi  ministers  of  the  gospel  upon  the  same  level.  King 
Janes  VI.  had,  from  infancy,  been  brought  up  under  Pres- 
bjterian  rule.  He  was  a  very  vain  man — vain  of  his  theo- 
logical attainments — fond  of  flattery — and,  On  succeeding 
tothe  English  crown,  was  completely  carried  away  from  his 
edy  ecclesiastical  principles,  by  the  flattery  of  the  bishops, 
ad  the  external  splendour  of  the  English  church  service. 
I  one  of  his  addresses  to  the  General  Assembly,  before 
laving  Scotland,  he  characterized  the  English  service  as 
4  an  ill  mumbled  mass,"  and  gave  his  solemn  pledge  to 
maintain  the  principles  and  government  of  the  Scottish 
liurch.  He  had  sworn  and  subscribed  "  The  National 
Covenant ;"  but  had  not  been  seven  months  on  the  throne 
of  England,  when  he  had  made  up  his  mind  to  bring  the 
Scottish  church  to  conform  to  the  Prelacy  of  England.  The 
Puritans  of  England  had  expected  a  removal  of  their  griev- 
ances, as  James  had  been  known  to  express  his  preferences 
for  Presbyterianism  ;  but  they  were  doomed  to  disappoint- 
ment. They  learned  "  not  to  put  their  trust  in  princes." 
At  the  Hampton  Court  conference,  they  proposed  that 
meetings  of  the  clergy  be  convened  to  confer  on  religious 
subjects ;  but  James  rejected  the  proposal  with  rudeness. 
u  If  you  aim  at  a  Scottish  Presbytery,"  said  he,  "it  agrees 
as  well  with  monarchy  as  God  and  the  devil.  Then  Jack 
and  Tom,  and  Will  and  Dick,  shall  meet,  and  at  their 
pleasure  censure  me  and  my  council.    Stay,  I  pray  you,  for 


104  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

one  seven  years  before  you  demand  it ;  and  then,  if  you  find 
me  grown  pursy  and  fat,  I  may  perhaps  hearken  unto  you, 
for  that  government  will  keep  me  in  breath,  and  give  ne 
work  enough.1"  This  was  plain  speaking.  The  Fnritais 
could  not  have  mistaken  its  meaning.  James  was  preparhg 
to  introduce  Prelacy  into  Scotland,  and  thereby  to  oxst 
Presbyterianism  from  his  fatherland. 

Charles  L  followed  in  the  footsteps  of  his  father,  >y 
pressing  his  Prelatic  tendencies  on  his  Scottish  subjecs. 
He  did  this  so  strongly,  and  unwisely,  as  to  lead  to  an  opn 
rupture.     The  throwing  of  Jenny  Geddes'  stool  at  the  he;d 
of  the  Dean  of  Edinburgh,  when  he  was,  for  the  first  tim, 
conducting  the  worship  according  to  the  English  liturg;, 
was  "  the  blow  which  began  the  battle"  between  Charles  i 
and  his  Scottish  subjects.     It  marked  the  commencemen 
of  one  of  the  most  remarkable  social  revolutions  through 
which  this  or  any  other  nation  has  passed.      While  events 
were  in   progress    which  consummated  this  Revolution, 
Charles  lost  his  head  ;  but  Scotland  kept  her  covenant. 

During  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  an  event  occurred  which 
marked  an  epoch  in  the  religious  history  of  Scotland,  and 
which,  from  the  close  proximity  of  the  scene  of  its  occurrence 
to  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan,  and  the  moral  influence 
which  it  diffused  over  the  district,  is  deserving  of  a  notice 
at  this  period  of  our  narrative.  The  parish  of  Shotts  adjoins 
the  parish  of  Cambusnethan,  along  a  large  portion  of  its 
northern  boundary.  The  event  alluded  to  was  the  remark- 
able awakening  at  the  Kirk  of  Shotts,  on  the  21st  June, 
1630.     The  Lord's  Supper  had  been  dispensed  there  on  the 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  105 

previous  day.  Through  the  influence  of  the  Marchioness  of 
Hamilton,  several  eminent  ministers  had  met  to  assist  in  the 
services  connected  with  the  dispensation  of  the  ordinance. 
Great  multitudes,  from  a  distance,  had  been  drawn  thither, 
to  hear  these  servants  of  Christ.  The  Sabbath  had  been  a 
feast-day  to  their  souls.  It  had  not  then  become  customary 
to  have  public  worship  on  the  Monday  after  the  communion? 
but  a  few  pious  persons,  before  the  close  of  the  Sabbath 
service,  requested  the  minister  of  the  parish  to  intimate  that 
there  would  be  a  thanksgiving  service  next  day,  and  leaving 
it  to  him  to  fix  on  the  minister  who  should  conduct  this 
service.  He  acceded  to  the  request,  and  fixed  on  Mr.  John 
Livingstone,  chaplain  in  the  family  of  the  Countess  of  Wig- 
ton,  then  residing  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Shotts,  as  the 
minister  who  should  preach  on  the  morrow.  The  services 
of  that  Monday  were  conducted  in  the  open  air,  at  the  west 
end  of  the  church-yard.  The  text  was  Ezek.  xxxvi.  25, 26. 
Mr.  Livingstone  had  discoursed  from  this  text  for  about  an 
hour,  when  a  shower  of  rain  began  to  fall.  He  took  occasion 
to  improve  the  circumstance  by  remarking,  "  What  a  mercy 
is  it  that  the  Lord  sifts  that  rain  through  these  heavens  on 
us,  and  does  not  rain  down  fire  and  brimstone,  as  he  did 
upon  Sodom  and  Gomorrah  !"  Many  were  discomposed  by 
the  shower*  and  were  moving  off,  when  Mr.  Livingstone, 
elevating  his  voice,  said,  "  If  some  of  you  cannot  endure  a 
shower  of  rain,  how,  think  ye,  are  ye  likely  to  stand  the 
outpourings  of  the  vials  of  wrath  in  the  day  of  the  Lord?1' 
These  words  arrested  them;  and,  for  another  hour,  the 
preacher  went  on  in  a  strain  of  warning  and  exhortation, 
which  the  Lord  honoured,  in  savingly  impressing  the  hearts 
of  at  least  five  hundred  persons  then  listening  to  the  message 


106  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OP   THE 

of  mercy.  uThe  last  day  of  the  feast,"  on  that  occasion, 
certainly  was  "  the  great  day."  There  can  be  no  doubt 
that  many  persons  from  the  upper  part  of  the  parish  of 
Cambusnethan  were  in  that  auditory,  and  it  is  allowable  to 
admit,  that  to  the  souls  of  some  of  them  the  word  that  day 
came  with  power.  This  at  least  is  certain,  that  from  that 
day  there  was  a  great  increase  of  vital  and  practical  piety 
in  the  families  resident  on  the  banks  of  C alder  water,  and 
the  upper  part  of  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan.  Meetings 
for  prayer  and  fellowship  were  instituted,  and  long  main- 
tained. Muiryett  was  particularly  noted  from  a  very  early 
period  for  one  of  these  meetings,  and  the  spirit  which  was 
awakened  there,  more  than  two  hundred  years  ago,  is  still 
alive.  Within  eight  years  after  this  remarkable  awakening 
at  the  Kirk  of  Shotts,  the  conflict  between  Charles  and  the 
Covenanters  commenced.  Almost  the  whole  population  in 
Cambusnethan  sympathized  with  the  Covenanters;  and 
when  the  sifting  and  testing  times  of  persecution  came  round, 
some  thirty  years  afterwards,  it  was  no  more  than  might 
have  been  anticipated,  that  very  many  were  prepared  "  to 
take  joyfully  the  spoiling  of  their  goods,"  and  to  endure 
"bonds  and  imprisonment/'  rather  than  disown  the  testi- 
mony which,  by  word  and  deed,  they  had  solemnly  emitted. 

This  brief  allusion  to  the  awakening  at  the  Kirk  of  Shotts, 
and  the  share  of  it  in  which  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan 
participated,  will  justify  us  in  following  Mr.  Livingstone  a 
little  way  in  his  subsequent  course.  In  the  year  1638  he 
was  ordained  at  Stranraer,  and  was  a  member  of  the  famous 
General  Assembly  which  met  that  year  in  Glasgow  Cathe- 
dral.    Ten  years  afterwards,  he  was  removed  to  Ancruni, 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  107 

in  Teviotdale.  "When  prosecuting  his  ministry  in  this 
retired  locality,  Charles  I.  was  beheaded.  Charles  II.  was 
then  on  the  continent ;  and  when  the  church  of  Scotland 
thought  proper  to  send  commissioners  to  Holland  to  entreat 
the  King  to  return,  stating  to  him  the  terms  on  which  they 
were  willing  to  acknowledge  him  as  their  King,  Mr.  Liv- 
ingstone was  deemed,  one  of  three,  best  qualified  to  conduct 
this  critical  overture  to  a  favourable  issue.  The  King  was 
prevailed  on  to  return  to  Scotland.  Mr.  Livingstone  had 
his  fears  and  forebodings  that  he  could  not  be  trusted  ;  and 
so  strongly  did  these  impressions  influence  him,  that  he 
would  not  permit  the  King  to  land  on  the  soil  of  Scotland, 
till  he  had  solemnly  sworn  and  subscribed  the  covenants. 
He  went  on  board  the  vessel  which  had  couveyed  his  Majesty 
to  the  shores  of  his  native  land,  and  dealt  very  faithfully 
with  him,  before  tendering  to  him  the  oath,  or  receiving  his 
subscription.  However,  even  after  receiving  the  royal  oath 
and  subscription  to  the  covenants,  Mr.  Livingstone  seems 
to  have  had  his  misgivings,  that  there  was  no  real  change 
wrought  on  the  King's  heart,  and  that  he  secretly  cherished 
principles  at  variance  with  the  covenants,  which  he  had  so 
solemnly  subscribed.  Mr.  Livingstone  was  not  mistaken. 
He  lived  to  be  a  victim  to  the  indignation  of  the  Monarch, 
whom  he  had  been  instrumental  in  restoring  to  the  throne 
of  his  fathers,  and  a  martyr  to  the  principles  which  he 
deemed  dearer  to  him  than  country,  or  liberty.  He  sub- 
mitted to  a  voluntary  banishment  to  Holland,  where  he  died, 
at  an  advanced  age. 

We  now  proceed  directly  with  our  narrative.   Charles  II. 
— the  most  unprincipled  of  our  Princes — convinced  that  it 


108  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

was  good  policy  towards  Scotland  to  have  the  nobles  and 
people  on  his  side,  swore  the  covenants — even  on  his  knees— 
and  engaged  to  maintain  the  Presbyterian  church  and 
government  in  Scotland.  It  soon  became  sufficiently 
obvious  that  he  detested  the  church  of  Scotland,  and  her 
covenants,  regarding  them  as  the  curb  bridle  on  his  love  of 
Prelacy  and  arbitrary  power.  He  was  resolved  to  attempt 
the  abolition  of  Presbyterianism  in  Scotland.  He  dreaded 
nothing  so  much  as  the  power  which  that  form  of  govern- 
ment placed  in  the  hands  of  the  people.  He  had  taken 
measures,  at  all  hazards,  to  establish  Prelacy  in  its  stead. 
He  knew  that  he  had  the  English  bishops,  and  several  of 
the  Scottish  nobles,  at  his  back.  The  leading  men  in  Scot- 
land, however,  were  not  traitors  to  their  trust.  Charles 
might  have  thrown  to  the  winds  the  solemn  vows  which  he 
made  at  his  coronation,  in  the  palace  of  Scone ;  but  there 
were  patriots  in  Scotland  who  could  take  up  the  covenants 
which  he  had  subscribed,  and  afterwards  torn  and  trampled 
on,  and,  holding  them  up,  thus  dishonoured  by  him,  allow 
them  to  accuse  him  of  faithlessness  to  the  terms  on  which  he 
had  been  received  by  his  subjects,  as  their  Sovereign.  Fore- 
most, in  this  band  of  patriots,  was  the  Marquess  of  Argyle, 
who  had  placed  the  crown  on  the  head  of  Charles.  Charles 
and  his  partisans  were  determined  to  get  rid  of  him,  and 
Argyle  had  to  lay  his  head  on  the  block.  Twelve  of  the 
more  influential  of  the  Presbyterian  ministers  drew  up  a 
remonstrance,  against  the  tyrannical  measures  which  the 
government  were  adopting.  Mr.  James  Guthrie,  minister 
of  Stirling,  was  the  leader  of  this  party.  His  enemies  con- 
cluded that,  with  the  view  of  silencing  his  opposition  to 
them,  he  must  either  retract,  or  accept  of  a  bishopric.     He 


PARISH    OF    CAMBUSNETHAN.  109 

would  do  neither ;  and  they  then  resolved  on  putting  him 
to  death.  He  was  hanged  and  beheaded  at  the  cross  of 
Edinburgh.  His  head  was  placed  on  the  Nether-Bow  port, 
and  for  twenty-seven  years  remained  there,  a  melancholy 
witness  against  the  spirit  which,  during  that  long  period, 
prevailed  in  the  high  places  of  our  land.  Johnston  of  War- 
riston,  the  able  law  adviser  of  the  Scottish  church,  met  with 
the  same  ignominious  death,  for  faithful  witness-bearing. 

When  these  clouds  were  gathering,  which  ultimately 
burst  over  the  land,  the  good  men  of  the  times  sent  an 
individual  to  London,  to  whom  they  entrusted  the  defence 
of  the  Presbyteriaa  cause,  and  the  liberties  which  the 
Covenanters  now  found  to  be  in  danger.  The  person  whom 
they  selected  for  this  mission,  and  in  whom  they  thought 
they  could  repose  confidence,  was  Mr.  James  Sharp,  minister 
of  Crail,  in  Fife.  He  basely  betrayed  the  cause  which  he 
had  solemnly  engaged  to  protect  and  promote.  While,  in 
his  correspondence  with  the  leading  men  of  the  church  of 
Scotland,  he  kept  up  a  semblance  of  attachment  to  their 
cause,  he  was  secretly  lending  his  aid  to  the  overthrow  of 
Presbyterianism  and  the  covenants,  and  to  the  successful 
introduction  of  Prelacy.  In  the  plot,  he  played  a  little  game 
of  his  own,  and  so  adroitly,  as  ultimately  to  get  himself 
created  Archbishop  of  Saint  Andrews,  and  Primate  of  Scot- 
land. It  was  necessary  that  he  should  have  bishops  under 
him,  with  whom  he  might  co-operate,  in  carrying  out  the 
measures,  to  their  full  extent,  on  which  Prelacy  was  now 
resolved.  Among  the  Presbyterian  ministers  in  Scotland, 
he  could,  at  first,  obtain  only  three  who  consented  to  be 
ordained  to  be  bishops.     The  first  was  Mr.  Andrew  Fair- 


110  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OP   THE 

fowl,  minister  of  Dunse,  who  became  Archbishop  of  Glasgow, 
and  whose  character  has  been  already  adverted  to,  and 
briefly  sketched,  in  this  volume.  The  second — most  won- 
derful to  relate — was  a  minister,  whose  father's  sufferings, 
under  the  hands  of  Prelacy,  we  cannot  avoid  noticing.  Dr. 
Alexander  Leighton  had  published  a  little  volume,  still 
known,  "  Zion's  Plea  against  Prelacy."  This  volume  was 
so  offensive  in  the  estimation  of  the  leaders  of  the  Episcopal 
party,  that,  in  the  year  1629,  he  was  seized,  tried  before 
the  infamous  Star  Chamber  in  London,  and,  at  the  instance 
of  Bishop  Laud,  was  condemned  to  endure  the  following 
penalties  and  tortures.  He  was  fined  ,£10,000. — publicly 
whipped  at  a  cart's  tail — set  in  the  pillory  at  Westminster 
— when  there,  had  one  ear  cut  off,  one  nostril  slit  up,  and, 
on  one  cheek,  the  letters  S.S. — to  express  Sower  of  Sedition 
— were  branded  with  a  red  hot  iron.  A  week  after  this,  he 
was  again  pilloried  in  Cheapside,  had  his  other  ear  cut  off, 
his  other  nostril  slit  up,  and  his  other  cheek  branded  with 
the  letters  S.S.,  and  then  ordered  to  prison  for  the  remain- 
der of  life.  He  remained  in  prison  for  ten  years,  when  the 
Parliament  released  him.  Singular  enough,  his  son,  Mr. 
Robert  Leighton,  who  had  been  minister  at  Newbattle, 
near  Dalkeith,  and  who,  in  the  year  1661,  was  principal 
of  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  consented  to  be  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Dunblane.  And  who  was  the  third,  in  this  small 
company  of  bishops,  who  rallied  around  the  traitorous 
Sharp  ?  He  was  Mr.  James  Hamilton,  minister  of  the 
parish  of  Cambusneihan,  who,  having  gone  up  to  London, 
with  Fairfowl  and  Leighton,  was  ordained  by  the  Bishop  of 
London,  and  came  down  to  Scotland  wearing  the  title  of 
Bishop  of  Galloway.     When  minister  in  Cambusnethan  he 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  Ill 

married  into  the  family  of  Steuart  of  Allanton.  His  con- 
dition as  a  bishop  contrasted  very  strongly  with  the  quietude 
of  his  pastoral  labours  in  Cambusnethan.  He  was  not  long 
in  discovering  that,  in  Galloway,  he  was  not  reposing  on  a 
bed  of  roses ;  and,  that  his  bishop's  mitre  pressed  on  his 
brow,  as  painfully,  as  if  it  had  been  a  chaplet  of  thorns. 

At  this  point  in  our  narrative  it  will  be  proper  to  bring 
to  recollection,  what  was  fully  stated  in  the  previous  lecture, 
that  Leighton  came  to  be  particularly  associated  with  the 
parish  of  Cambusnethan.  Fairfowl,  who  had  been  made 
Archbishop  of  Glasgow,  died  in  the  year  1663.  Burnet, 
who  succeeded  him,  was  dispossessed  of  his  title  and  office 
in  the  year  1670.  In  that  year  Leighton  was  removed  from 
Dunblane  to  Glasgow.  He  must  have  felt  his  position  as 
Archbishop,  especially  in  Glasgow,  any  thing  but  comfort- 
able, as  he  retained  it  only  three  years,  and  craved  to  retire 
again  into  the  quietude  of  Dunblane.  His  residence  in 
Garrion  tower,  during  the  period  he  was  Archbishop,  has 
been  formerly  alluded  to.  As  Cambusnethan  was  one  of 
his  mensal  kirks,  and  Garrion  tower,  as  a  residence,  both  in 
respect  of  locality  and  retirement,  had  peculiar  attractions, 
it  was  only  natural  for  a  man,  whose  mental  temperament 
was  studious  and  seclusive,  to  spend  his  quieter  days  here. 
Sir  John  Harper,  who  was  the  proprietor  of  Cam'nethan 
estate  at  the  time,  was  also  Sheriff-Depute  of  the  county  of 
Lanark ;  and  from  the  proximity  of  Garrion  tower  to 
Cam'nethan  house,  it  was  no  more  than  might  have  been 
expected,  that  the  Bishop  and  the  Sheriff  should  frequently 
meet.  This  is  confirmed  by  the  circumstance,  that  they  are 
frequently  found  associated,  in  the  records  of  that  period,  in 


112  niSTORIOAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

carrying  out  the  government  measures  within  the  sphere  of 
their  jurisdiction.  The  Bishop  must  have  felt  his  ecclesias- 
tical authority  to  be  nearly  powerless,  unless  supported  and 
borne  out  by  the  strong  arm  of  the  Sheriff.  Both  of  them 
had  to  see  that  the  persecuting  edicts  of  the  Privy  Council 
were  executed.  Neither  of  them  was  at  home  in  such  kind 
of  work.  Leighton  soon  went  back  to  Dunblane,  that  he 
might  avoid  interfering  with  the  devoted  Covenanters  of 
Clydesdale ;  and  Harper,  suspected  of  corresponding  with 
them  rather  than  concussing  them,  was  imprisoned  in  Edin- 
burgh castle,  and  only  liberated  on  granting  a  bond  for  ten 
thousand  pounds  sterling,  to  answer  when  called  upon. 

Leighton,  the  late  principal  of  Edinburgh  university,  and 
Hamilton,  late  minister  of  Cambusnethan,  had  been  bishops 
scarcely  three  months,  when  an  Act  was  passed  having  for 
its  object,  the  compelling  of  the  Presbyterian  ministers  to  be 
re-ordained  by  the  bishops,  and  subject  to  them  ;  or,  if  they 
refused,  the  effectually  crushing  of  them.  In  the  event  of  any 
minister  refusing  to  conform  to  Prelacy,  he  was  to  be  de- 
prived of  his  stipend  for  that  year — removed  from  his  parish 
and  presbytery — prohibited  from  ever  after  exercising  any 
part  of  his  ministerial  office — and  his  parishioners  who  might 
be  in  arrears  with  him  for  stipend,  were  not  to  pay  him, 
and,  whoever  attended  on  his  ministrations  were  to  be  pro- 
ceeded against  as  frequenters  of  conventicles.  What  was 
the  result?  Nearly  four  hundred  ministers,  chiefly  in  the 
southern  counties  of  Scotland,  refused  to  conform.  In  the 
Presbytery  of  Lanark,  with  its  thirteen  parishes,  not  one 
minister  conformed.  Mr.  Hamilton,  who  had  been  minister 
of  Cambusnethan,  by  accepting  of  a  bishopric,  had  con- 


PAEISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  113 

formed ;  but  he  was  the  solitary  conforming  minister  in  the 
Presbytery  of  Hamilton,  with  its  fourteen  parishes.  Thus, 
in  the  whole  vale  of  Clyde,  from  above  Tinto  almost  down 
to  Glasgow,  only  one  minister  conformed  to  Prelacy,  and  he 
was  Mr.  James  Hamilton  of  Cambusnethan.  This  circum- 
stance, of  itself,  will  go  a  great  way  to  shew  what  was  the 
state  of  feeling  among  the  really  pious  in  Scotland,  and 
especially  in  Clydesdale,  two  hundred  years  ago.  It  will 
also  prepare  us  for  the  deeply  interesting  story  of  the  sacri- 
fices to  which  they  submitted,  rather  than  renounce  their 
principles,  and  the  privileges  to  which  these  principles 
entitled  them.  Let  us  keep  in  recollection,  then,  that 
nearly  four  hundred  ministers  were  silenced — nearly  four 
hundred  parishes  were  left  vacant — and,  that  into  many  of 
these  parishes  curates  were  introduced,  not  only  ill  qualified 
for  ministerial  work,  but  immoral,  erroneous  in  their  prin- 
ciples, and  with  strong  leanings  towards  popery. 

It  became  exceedingly  difficult  for  the  bishops  to  supply 
the  vacant  parishes  with  curates.  The  measure  to  which, 
under  the  circumstance,  they  had  recourse,  was  a  crafty  and 
successful  one.  It  was  to  divide  the  strength  of  the  non- 
conforming party,  by  introducing  an  element  of  discord 
among  them.  An  Act  of  Indulgence  was  passed,  which 
tolerated  the  non-conforming  ministers  in  returning  to  their 
former  parishes,  if  still  vacant ;  or,  in  officiating  in  vacant 
parishes  over  which  they  might  be  appointed  by  the  Privy 
Council.  However,  they  were  tolerated  on  the  following 
terms :  that  they  submitted  to  the  authority  of  the  bishop — 
that  they  confined  their  ministry  to  their  own  parishes — that 
they  discountenanced  the  attendance  on  their  ministry  by 

n 


114  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

persons  from  neighbouring  parishes — and  that  if  they  refused 
to  submit  to  the  authority  of  the  bishop,  their  income  should 
be  restricted  to  the  occupancy  of  the  manse  and  glebe,  aye 
and  until  entire  submission  was  yielded  by  them.  Only 
forty-three  ministers  accepted  of  the  indulgence  on  these 
terms.  Mr.  William  Vilant,  who  had  been  minister  of 
Ferry-port-on-Craig,  in  the  county  of  Fife,  was  one  of  them. 
On  the  27th  July,  1669,  the  Privy  Council  sent  him  to  the 
parish  of  Cambusnethan,  in  which  he  continued  to  minister 
for  several  years. 

Mr.  Vilant  was  minister  of  Cambusnethan  during  a  con- 
siderable portion  of  the  persecuting  period,  and  had  a  large 
share  in  the  troubles  and  sufferings  peculiar  to  that  period. 
He  had  accepted  of  the  indulgence.  This  indulgence,  as 
might  have  been  expected,  did  not  work  well,  so  far  as  those 
who  had  accepted  it  were  concerned.  Their  grievances 
pressed  heavily  upon  them,  and  retarded  their  usefulness. 
They  resolved  to  draw  up  a  statement  of  these  grievances, 
and  lay  them  before  the  Privy  Council.  Mr.  Vilant  must 
have  been  regarded  as  a  person  of  some  business  talent,  as 
his  party  selected  him  to  draw  up  a  statement  of  their 
grievances.  His  personal  grievances  must  be  particularly 
noticed.  In  January,  1675,  he  came  personally  before  the 
Council  in  Edinburgh,  and  stated  that  he  had  served  the 
parish  faithfully  from  the  day  of  his  indulgence  in  it — that 
he  had  a  numerous  family  to  support,  but  that  he  had  not 
received  any  part  of  the  stipend  for  the  years  1672,  1673, 
and  1674,  and  craved  that  an  order  might  be  issued,  em- 
powering him  to  uplift  the  same.     The  Council  granted 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  115 

warrant  accordingly,  and  compelled  the  heritors  and  others 
to  pay  the  arrears. 

During  Mr.  Vilant's  ministry  in  Cambusnethan,  the 
parish  acquired  some  notoriety,  among  the  persecuted  dis- 
tricts, by  the  strong  measures  adopted  by  the  Privy  Council 
against  the  leading  persons  in  it,  who  either  countenanced 
the  Covenanters,  or  did  not  throw  the  full  weight  of  their 
influence  into  the  hands  of  the  government;  Darngavel 
and  Darmeid  were  becoming  famous  as  gathering  places, 
to  which  the  persecuted  and  oppressed  crowded,  when  one 
of  their  ministers  was  expected  there.  Black-loch,  situated 
a  very  little  to  the  north  of  Cambusnethan,  became  peculi- 
arly famous  for  a  conventicle  held  there  in  June,  1684,  and 
the  measures  which  resulted  from  it.  There  are  reasons  for 
concluding  that  the  sermon  on  that  occasion  was  preached  by 
Ren  wick,  the  last  of  the  martyrs.  This  conventicle  at  Black- 
loch  gave  the  Council  great  annoyance.  The  greater  portion 
of  the  heritors,  and  principal  parishioners,  in  Cambusnethan, 
were  brought  into  trouble  in  consequence  of  its  having  been 
held  in  their  vicinity,  or  from  their  having  been  directly,  or 
indirectly,  concerned  in  it.  William  Steuart  of  Allanton, 
his  brother  of  Hartwood,  Walker  of  Halketburn,  and  Mr. 
Vilant,  were  particularly  pounced  upon,  and  were  cited  to 
appear  before  the  Council  on  the  1st  July.  Mr.  Steuart  of 
Allanton  had  not  been  at  the  conventicle.  However,  he 
had  seen  a  large  party  who  had  been  at  it  pass  his  house, 
on  their  way  to  cross  the  Clyde,  and  because  he  did  not 
raise  the  hue  and  cry  against  them,  he  was  fined  in  three 
thousand  merks.  His  brother,  of  Hartwood,  on  returning 
from  sermon  at  Cambusnethan  kirk,  had  met  the  same  party, 


116  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

and  because  he  did  not  raise  the  hue  and  cry  against  them, 
he  was  fined  in  one  thousand  merks.  This  party  had  come 
from  the  south  side  of  the  Clyde.  They  had  intended  to 
cross  it  by  the  ford  near  to  Carbarns,  and,  consequently, 
passed  downward  by  way  of  Cambusnethan  manse.  Mr. 
Vilant,  the  minister,  did  not  raise  the  hue  and  cry ;  and, 
inasmuch  as  he  had  been,  in  the  estimation  of  the  Council, 
troublesome  to  them,  and  an  eye-sore  to  the  bishop,  he  was 
specially  cited  to  appear  before  the  Council.  In  his  defence, 
he  argued  that,  as  a  minister  of  the  gospel  of  peace,  he  did 
not  consider  it  was  his  duty  to  take  any  part  in  a  sanguin- 
ary matter.  On  being  closely  interrogated,  he  confessed 
that  he  had  not  confined  his  ministry  to  his  own  parish,  and 
that  he  had  baptized  children  to  parents  who  belonged  to 
neighbouring  parishes,  but  refused  to  depone  who  they  were. 
Still  further,  he  held  that  he  had  his  instructions,  as  a  min- 
ister of  the  gospel,  from  Jesus  Christ,  and  so  behoved  to 
obey  Him,  as  he  was  to  answer  to  Him.  These  were  serious 
admissions  on  his  part,  in  the  eyes  of  the  Council.  They 
were  deemed  a  violation  of  the  terms  on  which  he  had  been 
indulged  at  Cambusnethan.  The  Council  were  resolved  to 
get  rid  of  him  for  the  future.  They  declared  his  indulgence 
to  be  at  an  end ;  ordered  him  to  prison,  and  to  find  caution 
to  remove  out  of  the  kingdom  within  a  month.  In  the 
previous  lecture  we  have  mentioned  that  this  good  man  had 
to  submit  to  voluntary  exile,  and  have  narrated  his  subse- 
quent ecclesiastical  history. 

These  details,  which  are  but  preliminary,  do,  nevertheless, 
possess  a  large  amount  of  interest,  because  of  their  more 
immediate  connexion  with  this  locality.     We  now  enter, 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  117 

more  directly,  on  a  consideration  of  the  minuter  details  of 
the  share  which  Cambusnethan  had  in  the  troubles  and 
sufferings  of  the  persecuting  period.  Many  persons  in  this 
parish  suppose  that  Arthur  Inglis  of  Netherton  was  our 
solitary  martyr.    They  require  to  be  set  right  on  this  point. 

The  first  rising  of  the  oppressed  and  persecuted,  by  taking 
up  arms,  was  in  Galloway.  The  first  mustering  place  was 
at  Ochiltree,  in  Ayrshire.  The  little  army  passed  thence 
towards  Mauchline,  Muirkirk,  Douglas,  and  Lanark,  gather- 
ing numbers  and  strength  in  its  progress.  This  was  in  the 
year  1666.  At  that  time  Sir  James  Steuart  of  Coltness  had 
a  chaplain  and  tutor  in  his  family — a  licentiate — a  young 
man  of  decided  piety  and  talent,  of  the  name  of  M'Kail. 
He  was  nephew  to  one  of  the  Edinburgh  ministers.  About 
four  years  previous  to  the  rising  into  arms  referred  to,  Mr. 
M'Kail,  in  a  sermon  delivered  in  his  uncle's  pulpit,  had 
taken  occasion  to  advert  to  the  miserable  condition  of  a 
nation,  when  there  was  "  an  Ahab  on  the  throne,  a  Haman 
in  the  state,  and  a  Judas  in  the  church."  When  the  occasion 
on  which  this  discourse  was  spoken,  and  the  auditory  before 
whom  it  was  delivered,  are  taken  into  account,  it  will  not 
be  surprising  that  the  statement  of  the  preacher  should  have 
been  looked  upon,  as  being  directly  pointed  at  three  individ- 
uals then  occupying  the  high  places  in  the  country.  There 
was  but  one  opinion  that  Charles  II.  was  the  unprincipled 
Ahab — that  the  Earl  of  Lauderdale,  alike  cruel,  unscrupu- 
lous, and  dissolute,  was  the  Haman — and  the  traitorous 
James  Sharp,  who  was  now  Archbishop  of  Saint  Andrews, 
and  Primate  of  Scotland,  was  the  Judas.  From  that  day  Mr. 
M'Kail  was  a  marked  man  by  the  heads  of  the   goverment 


118  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

in  church  and  state,  and  they  longed  for  an  opportunity 
when,  by  some  overt  act  on  his  part,  they  might  feel  justified 
in  seizing  him,  and  proceeding  formally  to  be  avenged  upon 
him.  Mr.  M'Kail  was  aware  of  this,  and  as  the  vengeance 
of  the  oppressors  had  fallen  on  Sir  Jame3  Steuart  and  his 
family,  he  secretly  retired  to  Holland,  where  he  resided  for 
four  years,  hoping  that  the  storm  of  persecution  which  had 
arisen  would  abate.  But  for  this  prudent  step,  he  might 
have  met  his  doom  much  sooner. 

On  returning  to  Scotland,  he  found  the  state  of  matters 
much  worse  than  when  he  left  it.  The  yearnings  of  his 
heart  were  towards  the  persecuted;  and  with  youthful 
ardour  he  joined  them  at  Lanark,  and  proceeded  with  them 
towards  Pentland.  On  the  way  thither,  the  state  of  his 
health  was  such  as  to  oblige  him  to  leave  them,  and  to 
retire  to  Liberton,  that  he  might  recruit  under  the  parental 
roof.  His  enemies  tracked  him  out,  *and  carried  him  a 
prisoner  to  Edinburgh.  When  brought  before  the  Council, 
he  availed  himself  of  his  privilege  not  to  say  anything  which 
might  be  construed  into  a  ground  of  accusation,  either 
against  himself  or  others.  He  refused  to  answer  many 
questions  put  to  him.  He  was  threatened  with  the  torture 
of  the  boot,  that  infamous  engine  of  cruelty,  in  the  hope  of 
extorting  something  from  him,  which  he  was  supposed  to 
conceal.  It  was  in  vain.  The  torture  was  actually  inflicted, 
and  the  young  sufferer  endured  it  with  the  meekness  which 
deep  christian  principle  will  always  exhibit,  when  called  on 
to  suffer  for  the  truth.  His  limbs  were  so  much  injured, 
and  his  health  affected,  by  the  tortures  of  the  boot,  that  the 
Council  could  not  proceed  in  his  case  for  fully  a  fortnight. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  119 

They  were,  however,  resolved  on  his  condemnation.  They 
had  neither  forgotten  nor  forgiven  the  allusions  to  Ahab, 
Hainan,  and  Judas.  He  was  formally  accused  of  rebellion. 
He  nobly  defended  himself.  His  death  was  determined  on ; 
and  on  the  22d  December,  1666,  he  was  executed  at  the 
cross  of  Edinburgh.  He  was  one  of  the  youngest  of  our 
Scottish  martyrs,  being  only  in  his  twenty -sixth  year. 

Mr.  M'Kail  is  generally  understood  to  have  been  the 
Epkraim  Macbriar  of  Sir  Walter  Scott's  Old  Mortality.  Sir 
Walter  has  been  pleased  to  speak  of  him  as  "  the  fanatical 
Ephraim  Maebriar."  There  is  no  evidence  that  he  deserved 
such  an  epithet.  The  sufferings  which  he  undeservedly 
endured,  under  infirm  health,  were  sufficient  to  have  un- 
hinged, or  at  least  discomposed  his  mind ;  yet  Sir  Walter 
represents  him  as  uttering  the  following  testimony  before 
the  Council,  in  which  we  fail  to  discover  anything  akin  to 
fanaticism : — 

"  'Do  you  know  who  that  man  is?'  said  Lauderdale,  in 
a  low,  stern  voice,  almost  sinking  into  a  whisper. 

11  'He  is,  I  suppose,'  replied  Macbriar,  'the  infamous 
executioner  of  your  bloodthirsty  commands  upon  the  persons 
of  God's  people.  He  and  you  are  equally  beneath  my 
regard ;  and,  I  bless  God,  I  no  more  fear  what  he  can 
inflict  than  what  you  can  command.  Flesh  and  blood  may 
shrink  under  the  sufferings  you  can  doom  me  to,  and  poor 
frail  nature  may  shed  tears,  or  send  forth  cries  ;  but  I  trust 
my  soul  is  anchored  firmly  on  the  Rock  of  ages.' 

"  'Do  your  duty,'  said  the  Duke  to  the  executioner." 

The  torture  was  inflicted,  and  Macbriar  is  represented  as 
having  fainted  under  it,  so  that  it  was  discontinued.     The 


120  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

sentence  of  death,  however,  was  pronounced  upon  him,  so 
soon  as  he  had  revived.    Macbriar  then  said  : — 

"  l  My  lords,  I  thank  you  for  the  only  favour  I  looked  for, 
or  would  accept  at  your  hands,  namely,  that  you  have  sent 
the  crushed  and  maimed  carcass,  which  has  this  day  sus- 
tained your  cruelty,  to  this  hasty  end.  It  were  indeed  little 
to  me  whether  I  perish  on  the  gallows,  or  in  the  prison- 
house  ;  but  if  death,  following  close  on  what  I  have  this 
day  suffered,  had  found  me  in  my  cell  of  darkness  and 
bondage,  many  might  have  lost  the  sight  how  a  Christian 
man  can  suffer  in  the  good  cause.  For  the  rest,  I  forgive 
you,  my  lords,  for  what  you  have  appointed  and  I  have 
sustained. — And  why  should  I  not? — Ye  send  me  to  a  happy 
exchange — to  the  company  of  angels  and  the  spirits  of  the 
just,  for  that  of  frail  dust  and  ashes. — Ye  send  me  from 
darkness  into  day — from  mortality  to  immortality — and,  in 
a  word,  from  earth  to  heaven ! — If  the  thanks,  therefore, 
and  pardon  of  a  dying  man  can  do  you  good,  take  them  at 
my  hand,  and  may  your  last  moments  be  as  happy  as 
mine.' " 

We  leave  it  to  the  verdict  of  impartiality  to  say,  whether 
these  be  the  sentiments  or  utterances  of  a  fanatic.  The 
words  which  Mr.  M'Kail  did  utter  on  the  scaffold,  at  the 
cross  of  Edinburgh,  are  worth  being  recorded.  Of  all  utter- 
ances on  that  scaffold,  from  the  lips  of  martyrs,  the  dying 
testimony  of  young  MlKail,  in  point  of  eloquence,  has  never 
been  equalled.  "  Farewell  father  and  mother,  friends  and 
relatives — farewell  the  world  and  all  its  delights — farewell 
sun,  moon,  and  stars — welcome  God  and  Father — welcome 
sweet  Jesus  Christ,  the  Mediator  of  the  new  covenant — 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  121 

welcome  blessed  Spirit  of  grace,  and  God  of  all  consolations 
— welcome  glory — welcome  eternal  life — welcome  death!" 

Mr.  M'Kail  was  accompanied  to  the  scaffold  by  David 
and  James  Steuart  of  Coltness,  two  of  his  young  pupils, 
who  were  ardently  attached  to  him.  On  the  scaffold,  he 
gave  his  Bible  to  David,  who  afterwards  became  Sir  David 
Steuart.  This  Bible  long  remained,  as  an  honoured  relic, 
in  the  Coltness  family,  but  it  is  uncertain  whether  it  now 
exists.  After  the  execution  of  M'Kail,  a  circumstance 
transpired  which  has  tended  to  blacken  the  character  of 
Sharp,  the  Archbishop,  with  the  darkest  infamy.  Ten  men 
who  had  been  at  Pentland  were  hanged  on  one  gibbet,  and 
thirty-five  others  before  their  own  doors,  in  different  parts 
of  the  country.  The  executions  were  actually  so  numer- 
ous and  merciless,  that  the  King  wrote  down  to  the  Privy 
Council  to  stay  the  work  of  death.  Sharp  actually  kept  up 
the  King's  letter,  till  after  M^KaiVs  execution.  He  bore  the 
young  martyr  a  grudge,  and  was  determined  on  its  gratifi- 
cation. The  late  Dr.  Cooke,  in  his  History  of  the  time, 
thinks  Sharp  was  innocent ;  but  the  clearest  evidence  has 
attested  his  guilt,  and  we  do  not  wonder  that,  under  the 
excitement  which  such  perfidy  evoked,  men  did  combine  to 
destroy  the  Archbishop  in  the  manner  in  which  they  did. 
The  connexion  which  Mr.  Hugh  M'Kail  had  with  the  family 
of  Sir  James  Steuart  of  Coltness,  has  justified  us  in  identi- 
fying him  with  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan,  and  enrolling 
him  on  the  list  of  her  sufferers  and  martyrs. 

The  battle  of  Drumclog  was  one  of  the  most  notable 
events  in  the  troublous  times  to  which  we  are  now  alluding. 


122  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

It  was  fought  on  the  first  Sabbath  in  June,  1679.  The 
dragoons,  who  had  that  morning  gone  to  disperse  a  meeting 
of  the  Covenanters  convened  for  public  worship,  were  headed 
by  Claverhouse.  The  Covenanters  were  victorious.  Claver- 
house  with  difficulty  escaped,  having  had  his  horse  shot 
under  him.  Flushed  with  victory,  the  Covenanters  pro- 
ceeded to  Hamilton,  and  rested  for  the  night.  At  Hamilton, 
Walter  Paterson  of  Carbarns,  a  pious  youth  of  eighteen 
years,  joined  them.  They  were  here  greatly  reinforced,  and 
next  forenoon  proceeded  to  Glasgow,  increasing  their  num- 
bers by  the  way.  On  reaching  Glasgow,  they  divided 
themselves  into  two  parties — one  entering  by  the  Townhead, 
and  the  other  by  the  Gallowgate.  They  were  undisciplined, 
and  had  not  officers  of  suitable  experience  in  their  attack 
on  the  city,  otherwise  it  is  very  probable  they  would  have 
driven  the  regular  forces  out  of  it,  and  taken  possession  of 
it.  At  the  Gallowgate  bridge  they  were  attacked  by  the 
soldiery,  and  in  this  attack  young  Paterson  and  several 
others  fell.  The  papers  of  the  day  assert,  that  Claverhouse 
had  given  orders  that  they  should  not  be  buried,  and  that 
the  butchers'  dogs  should  be  allowed  to  eat  them.  The 
corpses  lay  on  the  street  from  eleven  o'clock  in  the  forenoon 
till  after  midnight,  as  the  inhumanity  of  the  soldiery  pre- 
vented every  one  from  removing  them.  They  were,  however, 
removed  under  cloud  of  night.  The  indignity  afterwards 
done  to  these  corpses  must  be  narrated.  By  pious  hands 
they  had  been  decently  dressed,  preparatory  to  burial ;  but 
the  savage  soldiery  broke  into  the  apartment  in  which  they 
had  been  laid  out — tore  off  the  linens — and  actually  carried 
off  the  funeral  shrouds.  Nobody  dared  to  bury  the  dead 
bodies,  till  at  length  a  few  heroic  women  resolved  to  make 


PARISH    OP   CAMBUSNETHAN.  123 

the  attempt.  As  they,  were  bearing  the  bodies  along  the 
High  Street  towards  the  Cathedral  burying- ground,  the 
soldiers,  with  their  swords,  cut  the  mortcloths  to  tatters,  and 
carried  off  the  spokes  by  which  the  coffins  had  been  upborne, 
leaving  the  coffins  on  the  street.  These  devoted  women, 
however,  did  not  desist  in  their  attempt  to  bury  their  dead. 
They  took  off  their  plaids — placed  them  beneath  the  coffins, 
and  in  this  mode  conveyed  the  corpses  so  much  nearer  the 
burial-ground.  The  soldiers  again  attacked  them — took 
their  plaids  from  them — and  threatened  them,  if  they  took 
any  farther  step  in  having  the  dead  bodies  interred.  They 
had  by  this  time  reached  the  point  where  the  Rottenrow 
joins  the  High  Street.  The  alms-house — remains  of  which 
still  exist — stood  there.  They  bore  the  coffins  into  the 
alms-house.  They  lay  there,  with  their  contents,  for 
several  days,  till  Mr.  John  Welsh,  and  a  party  of  friends 
from  Ayr,  carried  the  coffins  to  the  High  Church-yard,  and 
deposited  them  in  a  grave  near  the  wall  on  the  north-east 
corner  of  the  old  Cathedral. 

The  battle  of  Both  well  Bridge  was  also  fought  on  a 
Sabbath-day — exactly  three  weeks  after  the  battle  of  Drum- 
clog.  There  were  a  goodly  number  of  persons  belonging 
to  Cambusnethan  at  Both  well,  and  were,  in  consequence, 
brought  to  trouble,  suffering,  and  loss.  One  of  them  was 
James  Gourlay,  who  tenanted  the  farm  of  Overtown.  When 
he  perceived  that  the  Covenanters  had  lost  the  day,  he  fled 
for  safety.  He  was  hotly  pursued  by  a  few  dragoons.  In 
his  flight,  he  found  his  progress  interrupted  by  the  wall 
which  surrounded  the  policy  of  the  Duke  of  Hamilton.  If, 
by  any  possibility,  he  could  get  over  the  wall,  he  was  certain 


124  II1ST0RICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

to  escape  his  pursuers ;  but  the  difficulty  was  how  to  get 
over.  He  observed  a  crevice  between  two  stones  in  the 
wall — too  small,  however,  to  admit  of  introducing  the  point 
of  his  shoe.  Necessity  has  always  been  the  mother  of  in- 
vention. Putting  his  hand  into  his  pocket,  he  drew  out  a 
clasp  knife,  which  he  managed  to  introduce  into  the  crevice, 
and,  putting  his  foot  on  it,  reared  himself,  and  with  one 
spring  cleared  the  wall,  while  the  bullets  from  the  muskets 
of  his  pursuers  whizzed  past  his  ears.  He  fled  towards  the 
Clyde ;  and  observing  that  a  spreading  branch  of  a  tree 
hung  close  over  the  surface  of  the  river,  he  sprang  in, 
and  under  the  screening  shelter  of  this  branch  he  stood, 
almost  to  the  neck  in  water,  till  midnight.  All  dripping 
wet,  he  ventured  homeward  ;  but  not  to  enjoy  the  comforts 
of  his  own  bed  or  fireside.  He  knew  of  a  quiet  and  secluded 
spot  in  Garrion-gill,  and  chose  it  for  his  hiding  place.  He 
had,  however,  to  pay  the  penalty  of  his  long  cold  bath,  and 
wet  clothing.  They  brought  on  an  asthmatic  affection, 
which  clung  to  him  during  life.  One  evening  he  ventured 
home,  to  enjoy  domestic  comforts,  and  the  nursing  of  an 
affectionate  wife.  Some  of  the  troopers  were  not  far  off, 
and  were  made  aware  that  Gourlay  was  under  his  own  roof. 
They  approached  the  house  at  midnight.  Gourlay,  on  being 
aware  of  his  danger,  sprang  out  of  bed — quietly  drew  the 
bar  of  the  back  door — and,  committing  himself  to  the  pro- 
tection of  God,  fled  to  his  hiding-place  in  the  Gill.  On  a 
subsequent  occasion  he  was  less  fortunate;  having  been 
taken  prisoner,  and  led  off  towards  Hamilton.  At  a  place 
near  Hamilton,  where  the  Clyde  was  fordable,  there  was 
an  ale-house.  The  troopers  having  stabled  their  horses 
here,  and  locked  Gourlay  in  the  stable,  entered  the  ale-house, 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  125 

to  regale  themselves,  and  crack  their  jokes  over  their  good 
fortune  in  capturing  the  old  whig.  Gourlay  had  now  an 
opportunity  of  escaping,  and  he  did  not  lose  it.  Getting  on 
to  the  back  of  one  of  the  horses,  he  managed  to  reach  the 
baulks  of  the  stable,  and  as  the  stable  had  only  a  thatch 
roof,  he  succeeded  in  opening  a  hole  in  it,  and  thereby  escaped. 
He  dashed  through  the  river,  and  sought  the  hiding-place 
under  the  tree,  which  had  served  him  in  his  hour  of  need, 
when  flying  from  Bothwell.  He  subsequently  reached  his 
hiding-place  in  Garrion-gill ;  but,  for  greater  safety,  was 
necessitated  to  leave  the  country.  The  days  of  persecution 
came  to  an  end.  The  Revolution  introduced  happier  times, 
and  James  Gourlay  improved  them.  He  survived  the 
Revolution  twenty-five  years.  In  the  year  1714,  his  aged 
bones  were  borne  to  the  old  church-yard  of  Cambusnethan, 
and  there  his  dust  rests  safely,  awaiting  the  resurrection. 
The  Gourlays  of  Motherwell  are  sprung  from  this  honourable 
stock.  Old  James  Gibb  of  Cambusnethan  is  the  great- 
grandson  of  James  Gourlay  of  Overtown,  and  to  him  the 
author  has  been  indebted  for  the  above  facts  in  the  history 
of  his  witness-bearing  progenitor. 

Two  hundred  years  ago,  there  was  a  homely  farm  onstead 
in  the  valley,  mid-way  between  Cam'nethan  house  and 
Garrionhaugh,  called  "  Cam'nethan  Mains/'  The  farm  was 
tenanted  by  Alexander  and  James  Gray,  two  brothers,  who 
had  a  large  share  of  loss  and  suffering  during  the  troublous 
times  to  which  our  narrative  refers.  Their  house,  during 
the  greater  portion  of  the  persecuting  period,  afforded  a 
temporary  but  welcome  shelter  to  those  who  were  flying 
from  danger.    The  hungry  and  weary  always  found  refresh- 


126  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 


:    Of 

ook 


ment  and  repose  under  it3  roof.  Indeed,  it  was  one 
their  favourite  haunts,  where  they  often  communed,  took 
council  amid  their  straits,  and  joined  in  their  devotional 
exercises.  It  was  at  that  time  a  crime  to  be  a  resetter  of 
a  Covenanter.  For  several  years  the  brothers  Gray  were 
suspected  of  being  guilty  of  this  alleged  crime,  and  occasion- 
ally, for  weeks  together,  Alexander  had  to  betake  himself 
to  a  hiding-place  in  Garrion-gill.  Cold,  damp,  and  priva- 
tion broke  down  a  vigorous  constitution,  and  brought  on 
disease.  He  was  visibly  dying,  yet  it  was  still  unsafe  to 
remove  him  from  his  damp  cave  in  the  Gill,  to  the  comforts 
of  his  own  house  and  bed,  in  Cam'nethan  Mains.  He  re- 
quired an  amount  of  attention  which  it  was  impossible  to 
render  him,  unless  he  could  be  brought  nearer  home.  Under 
cloud  of  night  he  was  removed  to  the  centre  of  a  corn  field, 
near  his  own  house.  Here,  for  weeks,  the  dying  man  lay, 
exposed  to  the  rains  by  day,  and  the  dews  by  night,  till  at 
length  his  friends  resolved,  at  all  hazards,  to  remove  him  to 
the  shelter  and  comforts  of  his  own  house.  They  had  now 
risen  above  the  fear  of  man,  because,  in  a  brief  space,  the 
emaciated  body  of  Alexander  Gray  would  find  a  narrow 
bed  "  where  the  wicked  cease  from  troubling,  and  the  weary 
are  at  rest."  Sir  John  Harper,  Sheriff- depute  of  Lanark- 
shire, was  at  that  time  proprietor  of  Cam'nethan.  In  virtue 
of  his  office,  he  had  to  execute  the  persecuting  edicts  of 
those  in  power,  and  had  frequently  attempted  to  make  a 
prisoner  of  Alexander  Gray.  His  lady  was  a  person  of  a 
christian  spirit,  and  her  sympathies  flowed  very  freely,  but 
secretly,  in  favour  of  the  oppressed.  Whenever  an  oppor- 
tunity afforded,  unknown  to  her  husband  or  domestics,  she 
quietly  walked  up  on  an  evening  to  call  at  Cam'nethan 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  127 

Mains,  to  join  in  the  devotions  and  share  in  the  pious  con- 
versation around  its  hearth.  Her  visits  having  become 
frequent,  they  were  discovered,  and  became  the  subject  of 
remark  and  inquiry  on  the  part  of  her  husband.  Her  ready 
explanation  was,  "  that  she  thought  the  gudewife  at  the 
Mains  managed  her  dairy  better  than  the  dairy-maid  did 
at  Cam'nethan  house,  and  she  found  herself  profited  by  the 
lessons  which  she  was  there  acquiring."  James  Gray  sur- 
vived his  brother,  and  was  on  his  way  to  Bothwell  Bridge, 
on  the  morning  of  the  memorable  conflict,  when  the  tidings 
reached  him  that  his  friends  had  been  vanquished.  He 
held  his  principles  steadfastly,  and  consistently,  till  better 
days  came  round;  and,  " having  served  his  generation," 
his  body  was  laid  beside  the  bones  of  Alexander,  in  the  old 
church -yard  of  Cambusnethan.  The  hospitalities,  to  which 
the  wanderer  was  always  welcome,  under  the  roof  of  Cam'- 
nethan Mains,  have  been  referred  to.  In  connexion  with 
them,  it  may  be  mentioned,  that  the  bread-roller,  which 
must  have  been  in  frequent  requisition  on  the  kitchen  table 
of  Cam'nethan  Mains,  rolling  out  the  cakes  and  scones,  in 
haste,  for  the  hungry  visitors,  is  still  preserved  by  a  female, 
at  Douglas,  of  the  name  of  Gray,  who  esteems  it  as  a  relic 
from  the  household  of  her  honoured  progenitor  at  Cam'nethan 
Mains. 

At  the  period  of  our  narrative,  the  farm  of  Kirkhill  was 
tenanted  by  Robert  Paterson,  who  was  probably  nearly 
related  to  Paterson  of  Carbarns.  Robert  took  up  arms  with 
the  party  who  joined  Richard  Cameron,  and  was  one  of  the 
many  who  fell  at  the  battle  of  Ayrsmoss,  in  the  year  1680. 
His  son,  William,  partook  of  his  father's  spirit  and  views. 


128  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

His  landlord,  who  resided  at  Muirhouse,  actually  ejected 
him  from  his  farm,  for  no  other  reason  than  refusing 
conform  to  Prelacy ;  and  seizing  him,  forced  him  to  become 
a  soldier,  and  had  him  afterwards  removed  out  of  the 
country.  When  abroad,  William  managed  to  effect  his 
escape,  and  to  return  home ;  but  in  the  year  1685,  on  a 
Sabbath-day,  at  a  fellowship  meeting  at  Garrionhaugh,  he 
was  unexpectedly  seized  by  a  party  of  soldiers.  The  devout 
company,  disturbed  on  this  occasion,  consisted  of  fourteen 
persons.  Ten  of  them  managed  to  escape,  and  conceal 
themselves  in  Garrion-gill ;  but  William  Paterson  and  three 
others  were  taken.  These  thre»e  took  the  abjuration  oath, 
and  were  spared.  William  Paterson  refused  to  take  it,  and 
was  that  afternoon  carried  to  Strathaven  castle,  where  he 
was,  on  the  same  day,  shot  by  the  hands  of  Captain  Bell. 
The  following  inscription  is  on  the  stone  at  his  grave,  in 
Strathaven  burial-ground : — 

u  Here  lies  the  corpses  of  William  Paterson  and  John 
Barrie,  who  were  shot  to  death  for  their  adhering  to  the 
Word  of  God,  and  covenanted  work  of  reformation,  anno. 
1685. 

"Here  lie  two  martyrs  severally  who  fell 

By  Captain  Inglis,  and  by  bloody  Bell. 

Posterity  shall  know  they're  shot  to  death, 

As  sacrifices  unto  Popish  wrath." 

The  original  stone,  with  its  inscription,  having  become 
very  decayed,  the  inhabitants  of  Strathaven,  in  the  year 
1832,  erected  the  present  stone,  which  contains  a  copy  of 
the  original  inscription.  John  Barrie,  who  was  buried  in 
the  grave  with  William  Paterson,  belonged  to  Avondale. 
He  had  a  pass  in  his  hand,  and  shewed  it  to  Inglis ;  but 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  129 

although  he  did  so,  and  no  accusation  could  be  preferred 
against  him,  such  was  the  blood-thirsty  disposition  of 
Inglis,  that  he  maintained  that  John  Barrie  was  one  who 
deserved  to  die,  and  instantly  shot  him.  This  act  of  cruelty 
on  the  part  of  Inglis  will  be  the  less  wondered  at,  when  we 
mention  that,  a  short  time  before  this,  he  cut  off  the  head 
of  James  White,  at  Newmilns,  and  afterwards  kicked  it 
about,  as  if  it  had  been  a  football 

The  farm-house  at  Kirkhill,  like  that  at  Cam'nethan 
Mains,  was  the  occasional  residence,  and  refuge,  of  the 
persecuted.  There  is  a  tradition — which  the  author  had 
from  the  venerable  lady  who  at  present  occupies  Kirkhill, 
which  she,  in  her  youth,  often  heard  from  a  very  aged  per- 
son, who  resided  at  the  old  church-yard — to  the  following 
effect.  One  evening  a  party  of  troopers,  who  had  been  in 
quest  of  two  men  who  were  reported  to  haunt  at  Kirkhill, 
unexpectedly  surrounded  the  house.  The  men,  unfortu- 
nately, were  there.  The  family  had  just  finished  their 
homely  supper  on  sowens,  when  thus  surprised.  Only  a 
few  minutes  were  allowed  to  the  two  men,  whose  doom  had 
just  been  pronounced,  to  prepare  for  death.  That  humble 
hearth  became  the  scene  of  one  of  the  most  revolting  deeds 
in  the  annals  of  the  persecuting  period.  The  soldiers  ripped 
them  up  with  their  swords ;  and  those  who  were  witnesses 
of  this  inhuman  deed  were  in  the  habit  of  observing,  that 
their  feelings  were  overpowered  by  the  circumstance  of  the 
food,  which  the  unhappy  men  had  just  eaten,  being  poured 
out  on  the  hearth- stone. 

The  persons  who  suffered,  in  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan, 

i 


130  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

in  one  form  or  other,  were  really  so  numerous,  that,  were 
their  cases  fully  detailed,  this  volume  would  greatly  exceed 
the  limits  which  the  writer  of  it  has  prescribed  to  himself. 
It  will,  on  this  account,  be  necessary  to  study  a  measure  of 
conciseness. 

In  the  list  of  sufferers  the  name  of  John  Bryce,  meal- 
maker  in  Cambusnethan,  occurs.  He  had  been  at  Pentland 
— he  refused  to  take  the  bond  never  again  to  take  up  arms 
against  the  King — and,  for  his  refusal,  was  banished  to 
Virginia,  and  not  to  return  on  pain  of  death. 

Alexander  Smith,  who  was  alleged  to  have  been  at 
Bothwell,  was  carried  prisoner  to  Edinburgh.  He  escaped 
from  prison,  disguised  in  women's  clothes.  He  was  again 
apprehended,  but  rescued  at  Inchbelly-bridge,  near  Glasgow. 
He  was  a  third  time  captured,  and  sent  to  Dunnottar  castle, 
from  which  stronghold,  however,  he  managed  to  escape ; 
but  on  being  a  fourth  time  apprehended,  he  was  strictly 
guarded,  and  continued  a  prisoner  till  the  Revolution. 

James  Pettigrew  had  been  at  Bothwell  Bridge .  As  a 
penalty,  he  had  to  endure  having  a  party  of  soldiers  quar- 
tered upon  him,  and  only  got  rid  of  them,  after  a  time,  by 
giving  them  three  hundred  merks.  In  the  year  1681,  he 
was  apprehended  and  carried  to  Edinburgh,  where  he  was 
kept  a  prisoner  for  three  months,  and  was  then  liberated,  on 
condition  of  paying  five  hundred  merks  to  Gavin  Muirhead 
of  Lauchop.  Two  years  afterwards  he  was  oppressed  by 
the  laird  of  Meldrum,  who  forced  him  to  buy  back  his  own 
horses,  at  an  expense  of  two  hundred  merks. 


PARISH    OF   COIBUSNETHAN.  131 

Robert  Russel  was  one  day  met  by  a  party  of  soldiers. 
They  had  no  accusation  to  bring  against  him,  but  because 
he  refused  to  answer  the  questions  put  to  him,  and  declined 
to  own  the  King's  authority,  he  was  carried  to  Edinburgh, 
and  there  lay  in  irons  for  two  years* 

James  Forrest  in  Oldyards  and  his  son,  with  his  nephew, 
Robert  Gourlay,  were  apprehended.  The  only  crime  of 
which  they  could  be  accused  was,  their  having  given  food 
and  shelter  to  the  persecuted.  In  the  eyes  of  their  perse- 
cutors, this  of  itself  was  so  heinous  a  crime,  as  to  be  deemed 
a  sufficient  warrant  for  spoiling  them  of  their  goods,  and, 
after  a  period  of  imprisonment,  banishing  them  to  West 
Flanders.  They  effected  their  escape,  and  returned  home 
towards  the  close  of  the  year  1683.  James  and  his  son 
were  again  apprehended,  and  banished  to  Jamaica ;  and 
Margaret,  daughter  of  James,  was,  after  a  long  imprison- 
ment, banished  to  Jersey. 

Gavin  Muirhead,  for  alleged  rebellion  and  reset  of  rebels, 
was  banished  to  the  plantations  in  the  West  Indies. 

Gavin  Lawrie  in  Redmyre  was  imprisoned,  because  he 
had  furnished  refreshments  in  his  house,  to  persons  return- 
ing from  the  conventicle  at  Black-loch. 

John  Miller  in  Watersaugh — who  built  Cambusnethan 
church,  in  the  year  1650 — was  accused  of  having  had  cor- 
respondence with  rebels.  This  was  the  whole  of  his  offence ; 
yet,  after  an  imprisonment  of  nine  months,  he  was  liberated 
only  on  granting  bond  and  caution  for  the  exorbitant  sum 


132  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

of  five  thousand  pounds  sterling,  to  appear  within  sixty 
days  after  citation,  to  answer  any  charge  then  to  be  pre- 
ferred against  him. 

David  Russel,  Archibald  Prentice,  John  Cleland,  and 
John  Smith,  residing  in  Stane,  were  imprisoned  for  three 
months,  and  each  fined  to  the  amount  of  one  hundred  pounds, 
because  they  had  not  raised  the  hue  and  cry  against  a  party 
who  had  been  at  the  conventicle  at  Black-loch,  and  who, 
on  returning  homeward,  had  passed  their  houses.  David 
Russel  was  the  father  of  George  Russel,  who,  on  the  18th 
July,  1699,  was  ordained  an  elder  in  Cambusnethan .  George 
Russel,  the  son,  as  we  have  seen  in  our  narrative  of  the 
origin  of  the  Associate  congregation  at  Daviesdykes,  was 
one  of  the  seven  elders  who  protested  against  the  admission 
of  Mr.  Craig.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  Archibald  Pren- 
tice, the  second  name  on  the  list  of  sufferers  at  Stane,  was 
the  father  of  James  Prentice,  another  of  the  seven  elders, 
and  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Associate  congregation. 

Robert  Steel,  portioner  in  Stane,  was,  in  his  absence, 
indicted  for  having  been  at  Bothwell.  He  was  adjudged  to 
have  been  guilty  of  treason,  was  fdrfeited,  and  doomed  to 
be  executed  whenever  found. 

William  Dalziel,  in  West  Redmyre,  on  refusing  to  take 
"the  test,"  was  imprisoned  at  Glasgow;  and,  owing  to  the 
hardships  which  he  there  endured,  in  the  course  of  nine 
months  imprisonment,  died.  No  entreaty  could  prevail  to 
allow  the  dying  man  to  be  removed  from  prison ;  and,  even 
after  his  death,  it  was  with  very  great  difficulty  that  relatives 


PARISH  OF  cambusnethan.  133 

were  permitted  to  remove  his  body,  that  it  might  be  interred 
in  the  graves  of  his  forefathers,  in  the  old  churchward. 

George  Russel,  in  West  Redmyre  had  been  informed 
against,  for  having  received  baptism  for  a  child  at  a  con- 
venticle. No  evidence  was  adduced  beyond  report,  yet  on 
the  bare  report  he  was  imprisoned  at  Lanark,  and  after- 
wards in  Edinburgh.  "With  the  view  of  getting  rid  of  him, 
he  was  gifted  to  be  a  recruit,  and  sent  abroad  into  the  army, 
where  he  died. 

John  Marshall,  tenant  on  the  Coltness  estate,  refused 
i(  the  test,"  and,  in  consequence,  had  two  cows  taken  from 
him,  together  with  his  whole  crop. 

John  Torrance,  for  a  similar  reason,  had  a  cow,  six  sheep, 
his  whole  crop,  and  every  thing  portable  in  his  house,  taken 
from  him. 

In  the  list  of  those  against  whom  a  decree  of  fugitation 
was  executed,  the  following  names  occur : — Robert  Steel, 
in  Stane  ;  John  Steuart,  in  Goukthraple ;  Andrew  Cleland, 
in  Fimmington ;  Jaines  Brownlie,  servant  to  the  gudewife 
of  Garrionhaugh  ;  James  Alexander,  gardener  at  Coltness ; 
James  Baird,  in  Kirkhill ;  William  Brown,  in  Towartbush  ; 
William  Paterson,  in  Murray s ;  and  William  Purdie,  John 
Forrest,  Gavin  Brown,  Waiter  Pitcairn,  James  Watt,  Gavin 
Paterson,  all  in  Overtown. 

Thomas  Paton,  a  worthy  man,  resided  at  the  old  kirk  of 
Cambusnethan.    He  was  implicated  in  the  rising  which  led 


134  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE  * 

to  the  battle  of  Bothwell  Bridge ;  and  on  this  account  was, 
with  many  others,  u  forfeited  in  life,  lands,  and  goods," — so 
runs  the  wording  of  the  proclamation  against  him.  He 
fled.  He  was  tried  in  absence — condemned — and  ordered 
to  be  executed  as  a  traitor  whenever  found.  This  was  in 
the  year  1681.  The  year  1688  brought  the  Stuart  dynasty 
to  a  termination,  and  introduced  the  Revolution.  The 
sentence  of  forfeiture  of  life,  lands,  and  liberty,  which  had 
passed  on  so  many  godly  persons  in  Clydesdale  and  else- 
where, and  driven  them  into  exile,  was  then  rescinded. 
Those  who  survived  the  Revolution  were  permitted  to  return 
home,  and  enjoy  their  own  again.  On  carefully  looking 
over  a  very  long  list  of  hundreds  of  names  of  the  forfeited 
aud  exiled,  who  availed  themselves  of  the  happy  restoration 
to  their  homes  and  families,  the  following  are  met  with : — 
Robert  Steel,  portioner  in  Stane  ;  Thomas  Steuart  of  Colt- 
ness ;  David  Steuart  of  Coltness  ;  and  Thomas  Paton,  at 
the  old  kirk  of  Cambusnethan. 

The  troubles  and  sufferings  to  which  the  Steuarts  of 
Coltness — as  a  family — were  subjected,  during  the  perse- 
cuting period,  if  fully  detailed,  wonld  of  themselves  form  a 
deeply  interesting  episode.  As  a  family,  they  have  been 
proverbial  for  high-toned  piety  and  patriotism.  James 
Steuart,  the  founder  of  the  Coltness  branch  of  the  Steuart 
family,  was  a  man  of  high  character  and  extensive  influence. 
In  addition  to  what  we  have  already  said  of  him,  when 
sketching  the  history  of  the  Coltness  Steuarts,  we  mention 
that  he  was  provost  of  Edinburgh  from  the  year  1648  till 
1660.  He  was  a  staunch  adherent  to  the  royalist  cause, 
and  as  staunch  an  adherent  to  the  principles  of  the  cove- 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  135 

n ants.  He  took  a  very  active  part  in  the  restoration  of 
Charles  II. :  and,  as  an  illustration  of  the  extravagance  to 
which  even  good  men  then  went,  in  the  exuberance  of  their 
loyalty  to  the  Stuarts,  it  may  be  mentioned,  that,  under 
the  sanction  of  Sir  James  Steuart,  then  provost  of  Edin- 
burgh, after  sermon,  on  a  day  of  thanksgiving — 19th  June, 
1660 — "  many  came  to  the  cross,  where  a  table  was  covered 
with  sweetmeats — the  table  ran  with  wine — three  hundred 
dozen  of  wine  glasses  were  broken — there  were  fire- works 
on  the  castle-hill  in  the  evening,  with  the  effigies  of  Crom- 
well and  the  devil  pursuing  him,  till  at  length  by  gunpowder 
Cromwell  was  blown  into  the  air."  In  less  than  a  month 
after  this,  an  order  came  from  London  to  seize  and  imprison 
certain  parties,  the  head  and  front  of  whose  offending  was, 
they  were  Covenanters*  The  first  person  on  the  list  was  Sir 
James  Steuart,  provost  of  Edinburgh.  He  was  seized  and 
imprisoned  accordingly,  and  for  years  continued  either  in 
prison  or  under  bond.  He  had  been  present  at  the  sermon 
preached  by  his  chaplain,  Mr.  Hugh  M'Kail,  to  which 
reference  has  already  been  made,  and  because  certain  state- 
ments were  reported  to  have  been  made  by  the  preacher, 
offensive  to  the  heads  of  the  government,  Sir  James  and  his 
son,  Walter,  were  brought  into  great  trouble.  Walter  was 
seized  and  imprisoned.  Sir  James  soon  after  suffered  in  the 
same  mode;  and  after  long  imprisonment  in  Edinburgh, 
was,  in  the  year  1676,  removed  to  the  tolbooth  of  Dundee, 
and  after  an  imprisonment  there  of  two  years,  obtained 
liberation.  In  the  year  1679,  he  was  again  committed  a 
prisoner  to  Edinburgh  castle.  He  had  to  pay  two  fines — 
the  one  amounting  to  £500,  and  the  other  to  £1,000.  In 
consideration  of  his  age  and  infirmity,  he  was  liberated,  and 


136  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

allowed  to  return  to  Coltness,  under  bond  of  ten  thousand 
merks  to  appear  when  called.  He  died  two  years  after- 
wards. 

Walter  Steuart,  the  second  son  of  Sir  James,  was  accused 
of  emitting  speeches,  tending  towards  sedition,  in  a  smith}7, 
while  public  matters  were  being  discussed.  From  the 
minutes  of  Privy  Council,  under  date  11th  November,  1662, 
he  appears  to  have  denied  having  uttered  the  speeches 
alleged  to  have  been  spoken  by  him.  Witnesses  having 
been  examined,  the  Council  found  that  some  things  had 
been  uttered  tending  to  sedition,  and  ordered  him  to  be 
imprisoned  till  further  orders  regarding  him  were  given. 
Under  his  imprisonment  his  health  gave  way,  and  death 
removed  him  from  this  stage  of  suffering,  even  before  young 
MlKail,  his  tutor,— on  whose  account  Steuart  was  brought 
into  trouble, — had  been  called  upon  to  seal  his  testimony 
with  his  blood.  The  body  of  young  Steuart  sleeps  with 
kindred  dust,  within  the  precincts  of  our  old  church-yard, 
and  he  must,  for  the  reasons  now  recorded,  be  enrolled 
among  the  martyrs  whose  graves  are  within  the  same  se- 
questered spot. 

The  provost  of  Edinburgh  had  several  sons.  We  have 
already  heard  of  Walter,  and  shall  yet  hear  of  Thomas  and 
David.  One  of  his  sons — James  by  name — was  educated 
for  the  bar,  and  became  an  eminent  lawyer  and  pleader. 
At  that  time  a  notable  paper  appeared,  entitled  "  Scotland's 
Grievances ;"  and  there  being  good  reasons  for  concluding 
that  it  was  the  production  of  James  Steuart's  pen,  an  order 
came  down  from  London  to  seize  and  confine  him,  not 


PAKISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  137 

allowing  him  to  hold  converse  with  his  friends,  by  word  or 
writing,  and  that  all  his  papers  and  cabinets  should  be  seized 
and  sealed.  He  got  notice  of  all  this,  and  for  several  years 
managed  to  conceal  himself.  When  the  Earl  of  Argyll 
was  brought  into  trouble,  no  one  was  deemed  so  well  quali- 
fied to  prepare  his  defences  as  young  Steuart.  The  plead- 
ings were  detected  to  be  in  Steuart's  hand- writing.  This 
was  deemed  an  offence  so  grave  that  he  was  put  to  the  horn, 
and  all  his  effects  were  forfeited.  He  fled  to  Holland,  and 
continued  there  till  the  toleration,  when  he  returned  home. 
After  the  Kevolution  he  was  promoted  to  the  office  of  Lord 
Advocate  for  Scotland — an  office  which  he  filled  with  great 
ability  during  the  reign  of  William  III.  It  is  not  generally 
known,  but  deserves  to  be  mentioned,  that  the  volume  en- 
titled "  Naphtali ;  or,  The  Hind  Let  Loose,"  was  the  joint 
production  of  the  Lord  Advocate  and  the  Kev.  Mr.  Stirling 
of  Paisley.     Mr.  Steuart  died  in  the  year  1713. 

Thomas — the  first  baronet  in  the  Coltness  family — was 
brought  to  great  trouble,  suffering,  and  loss,  in  consequence 
of  being  accused  of  having  aided  and  abetted  the  rebels  on 
the  occasion  of  Bothwell  Bridge.  He  is  described  as  having 
been  <4  a  man  of  eminently  holy  life,  shining  conversation, 
and  many  other  excellent  endowments.'1  In  the  criminal 
charges  preferred  against  him,  there  was  no  legal  proof  of 
his  having  directly  supplied  food  for  the  persecuted  party, 
on  occasion  of  the  battle  at  Bothwell ;  but  that  food  had 
been  obtained  at  Coltness  house,  was  sufficiently  clear. 
The  probability  is,  that  Thomas  made  up  his  mind  to  be 
entirely  passive  in  the  matter.  The  friends  of  the  Cove- 
nanters, anticipating  a  battle  at  Bothwell,  made  preparations 


138  HISTORICAL    SKETCHES    OF   THE 

for  it ;  and,  aware  that  something  in  addition  to  powder 
and  ball  was  requisite,  concluded  that  they  were  likely  to 
find  it  in  the  larder  of  Coltness  house.  They  were  well 
aware  that  its  whole  contents  were  at  their  command,  and 
that  the  safest  policy  on  their  part  was  not  to  implicate  Mr. 
Steuart,  but  carry  off  whatever  was  suitable  in  the  exigency. 
When  the  case  of  Mr.  Steuart  came  to  trial,  three  things 
were  charged  agaiust  him — first,  that  he  had  furnished  meat 
and  drink  to  the  rebels  at  Bothwell ;  second,  that  he  had 
resetted  men  going  to  and  fro,  on  occasion  of  the  battle ; 
and  third,  that  he  had  taken  guilt  to  himself,  and  fled  from 
justice.  When  the  proof  was  led,  one  James  Cooper  de- 
poned, that  he  saw  Coltness  standing  at  his  own  gate,  and 
send  off  a  sledge  with  bread,  meat,  two  cold  turkeys,  and 
drink  ;  and  that  he  took  back  into  his  service  his  butler  and 
gardener,  though  they  had  been  at  Bothwell.  Another 
person  deponed,  that  he  saw  the  servants  carry  the  food  to 
Hamilton  moor.  James  Black  deponed,  that  he  sold  six 
gallons  of  ale,  carried  it  to  Hamilton  moor,  and  got  payment 
from  Coltness'  servants.  It  was  farther  adduced  in  evidence 
against  Thomas  Steuart,  that  he  refused  or  declined  to 
put  his  tenants  out  of  their  farms  or  houses,  though  they 
had  been  at  field  preachings,  and  had  also  refused  to  take 
any  part  in  apprehending  them.  On  these  charges  he  was 
condemned ;  and  by  an  Act  of  Parliament  passed  in  1685, 
his  lands  were  declared  forfeited,  and  for  ever  annexed  to 
the  crown,  not  to  be  dissolved  from  it  but  by  Parliament. 
Mr.  Steuart  fled  to  Holland,  and  remained  there  tHl  the 
Revolution.  During  the  year  1686,  the  crown  gave  the 
baronies  of  Coltness,  Goodtrees,  and  North  Berwick,  to  the 
Earl  of  Arran,  in  acknowledgement  of  his  services  against 


PABISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  139 

the  Earl  of  Argyll.  After  the  Eevolution  Mr.  Steuart  had 
his  estates  restored  to  him ;  and,  as  a  compensation  for  the 
losses  which  he  had  sustained  during  the  period  of  his  for- 
feiture, he  had  £200.  annually  allowed  him,  out  of  the 
revenues  of  the  Archbishopric  of  Glasgow. 

One  of  the  family  reminiscences  of  the  Steuarts,  during 
the  persecuting  period,  the  author  obtained  from  a  gentleman 
who  had  for  many  years  been  on  terms  of  intimacy  with  the 
late  Sir  James  Steuart.  Claverhouse  and  a  body  of  his 
dragoons  were,  at  least,  one  night  at  Coltness  house.  Their 
company — as  may  well  be  conceived — was  anything  but 
welcome  or  agreeable.  Several  of  the  servants,  and  the 
.  greater  number  of  the  tenantry  on  the  Coltness  estate,  had 
identified  themselves  with  the  party  who  had  been  driven  to 
take  up  arms  in  self  defence.  On  the  occasion  of  this  visit 
by  Claverhouse,  they  deemed  it  prudent  to  conceal  them- 
selves. The  coal  pits,  entering  from  the  Temple- gill,  were 
their  hiding-places.  They  knew  that  Sir  James  would  not 
betray  them,  but,  on  the  other  hand,  do  all  in  his  power  to 
conceal  and  protect  them.  Indeed,  so  great  was  his  anxiety 
for  their  safety  and  comfort  in  their  hiding-places,  that  it 
almost  divulged  to  Claverhouse  the  secret  which  it  was 
necessary  to  hide  from  him.  The  company  at  Coltness  had 
just  sat  down  to  supper  when  Sir  James  said  to  the  servants 
who  were  in  waiting,  "Noo,  lads,  see  an'  dinna  forget  to 
gi'e  the  nowt  their  supper  the  nicht."  The  servants  gave 
their  master  such  a  nod,  and  expressive  look,  as  to  satisfy 
him  that  they  understood  the  secret  meaning  of  his  instruc- 
tions. As  they  were  removing  the  cloth  he  said  "Noo,  see 
and  dinna  forget  the  nowt"     As  the  evening  advanced,  he 


140  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

took  occasion  to  ask  them  "  Are  ye  sure  the  nowt  have 
gotten  their  supper?'7  Claverhouse  did  not  assert  that 
his  host  was  offering  him  an  insult,  but  took  occasion  to 
remark,  that  "it  certainly  was  what  he  had  not  expected, 
that  Sir  James  should  seem  to  be  more  concerned  for  the 
comfort  of  his  ■  nowt,'  than  the  entertainment  of  his  Majes- 
ty's servants.'" 

David  Steuart  of  Coltness — to  whom  M'Kail  gave  his 
Bible  when  on  the  scaffold — had  his  own  share  of  the  an- 
noyances and  sufferings  of  these  times.  In  the  year  1685, 
he  was  indicted  for  treason.  On  his  trial,  the  only  things 
which  he  admitted,  to  which  his  prosecutors  could  attach 
guilt,  were,  "  that  he  had  gone  over  to  Holland — conversed 
there  with  the  late  Earl  of  Argyll — that  he  had  returned 
with  him  to  the  Highlands — continued  with  the  rebels  till 
taken — and  that  he  had  a  sword."  On  these  grounds  the 
Lords  of  Justiciary  sentenced  him  to  be  executed,  at  the 
cross  of  Edinburgh,  on  the  Wednesday  thereafter,  22d  July, 
1685.  On  the  Monday — the  20th  of  the  month — the  Lords 
of  Council  ordered  a  reprieve  till  the  3d  of  September.  On 
the  25th  August,  the  King  continued  the  reprieve  till  he 
should  signify  his  pleasure  to  the  contrary,  but  that  David 
Steuart  should  be  kept  a  close  prisoner.  Matters  were  now 
hastening  to  a  crisis  in  Scotland.  The  Stuart  dynasty  had 
nearly  run  its  course.  Its  cup  of  iniquity  had  filled  very 
rapidly.  There  are  limits  to  endurance,  and  these  limits 
had  now  been  nearly  reached.  The  days  of  persecution  and 
blood  came  to  an  end.  The  imprisoned  and  exiled  members 
of  the  Coltness  family  were  set  free,  or  were  allowed  to 
return  home.      The  ^Revolution  removed  the  last  of  the 


PAEISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  141 

Stuarts  from  the  throne,  and  introduced  happier  times. 
The  survivors  of  this  troublous  period  returned  to  enjoy  their 
own  again  in  peace. 

The  share  which  the  Coltness  family  had  in  the  troubles 
and  sufferings  of  the  twenty-seven  years  of  persecution,  has 
justified  us  in  giving  to  their  case  the  prominency,  and 
minuteness  of  detail,  which  we  have  done.  As  a  family, 
they  now  exist  only  on  the  page  of  history ;  but,  as  it  is 
the  business  of  history  to  deal  faithfully  with  the  past,  and 
especially  to  chronicle  the  deeds  of  the  patriotic  and  the 
virtuous,  we  cordially  add  our  stone  to  the  cairn  which 
covers  the  sepulchres  of  a  house  which  struggled  so  long,  so 
consistently,  and  so  successfully,  for  the  liberties  which  we 
continue  to  enjoy. 

The  name  of  Arthur  Inglis  has  been  mentioned  oftener 
than  any  other  in  our  parish,  in  connexion  with  the  times 
of  suffering  and  martyrdom.  This  is  accounted  for  by  the 
circumstance,  that  his  grave  is  the  only  one  in  our  old 
church-yard  which  has  been  honoured  with  a  memorial 
stone.  We  question  whether  several  others  buried  there  have 
not  been  equally  deserving  of  this  honour,  and  a  few,  more 
so.  They  testified  for  the  principles  of  a  covenanted  refor- 
mation, and  maintained  this  testimony,  with  honour,  in  a 
day  of  trial ;  whereas  there  is  no  direct  evidence  that  Arthur 
Inglis  had  given  any  such  open  testimony,  or  that  he  had 
identified  himself  with  the  oppressed  and  persecuted  party 
in  the  land.  The  only  particulars  which  have  been  gathered 
concerning  him  are,  that  he  was  the  tenant  on  the  farm  of 
Netherton.    On  the  23d  June,  1679,  the  morning  after  the 


142  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

battle  of  Bothwell  Bridge,  he  was  herding  his  cows  at 
Stockleton-dyke.  He  was  a  devout  man,  and  had  hi3  Bible 
in  his  hand  while  watching  his  cows.  At  that  period  a 
road  ran  along  the  vale,  near  the  old  church,  onward  past 
Cam'nethan  house,  and  towards  the  Law  of  Carluke.  Two 
or  three  dragoons  were  that  morning  passing  along  this 
road,  and  observing  a  man  perusing  a  book,  inferred  he  was 
a  whig.  One  of  them  discharged  his  carabine  at  him,  but 
missed  him.  Arthur  Inglis  had  not  been  aware  of  their 
approach,  and,  startled  by  the  discharge  of  the  gun,  his 
Bible  was  thrown  up  into  the  air.  He  looked  round  to 
ascertain  from  what  quarter  the  shot  had  come,  when  the 
dragoon  who  had  fired,  irritated  that  his  shot  had  not  taken 
effect,  galloped  up,  and  with  one  stroke  of  his  sword  on  the 
head  of  the  good  man,  laid  him  dead  on  the  spot.  Whether 
any  stone  was  put  up  at  his  grave  when  he  was  buried,  is 
uncertain.  The  old  stone,  with  its  quaint  inscription,  was 
put  up  in  the  year  1733.    The  inscription  is  as  follows  : — 

"  Here  Lyes 
Arthur  Inglis  in  Nethertown 
Who  Was  shot  at  Stockelton 
Dyke  by  bloody  Graham  of 
Claversehouse,  July,  1679. 
for  his  adherence  to  the  word 
Of  God,  and  Scotland's  Cov 
enanted  work  of  Reformation. 
Rev:  xii.  11.  .v_^o 
Erected  in  the  year  1733." 

This  stone,  then,  was  erected  120  years  ago.     In  the 


PARISH   OF    CAMBUSNETHAN.  143 

above  inscription,  however,  the  date  of  Arthur  Inglis'  death 
is  not  sufficiently  accurate.  It  ought  to  have  been  June, 
not  July.  On  the  back  of  the  stone  are  the  following 
lines : — 

"  Memento  Mori.  V 

When  I  did  live  such  was  the  day 

Forsaking  sin  made  men  a  prey 

Unto  the  rage  and  tyranny 

Of  that  throne  of  iniquity 

Who  robbed  Christ,  and  killed  his  saints 

And  brake  and  burnt  his  covenants. 

I  at  that  time  this  honour  got 

To  die  for  Christ  upon  the  spot." 

On  passing  down  the  road  leading  to  West  Carbarns, 
and  immediately  below  Kanald's  orchard,  five  venerable  oak 
trees,  toward  the  left,  will  arrest  attention.  They  remain 
to  mark  the  line  of  Stockelton-dyke.  The  late  Mr.  Paterson 
of  Watersaugh,  factor  on  the  Wish  aw  estate,  mentioned  to 
the  author  that  the  late  Lord  Belhaven  one  day  expressed 
a  wish  that  the  trees  should  be  cut  down.  Mr.  Paterson 
took  occasion  to  say,  "  My  Lord,  if  I  had  a  voice  in  the  mat- 
ter, I  would  decidedly  say  let  these  trees  grow"  "  Why?" 
"  Because,  my  Lord,  there  is  a  martyr's  blood  under  one  of 
them.  It  was  beneath  the  shade  of  one  of  those  trees 
Arthur  Inglis  was  sitting  when  he  was  murdered."  "Then, 
Mr.  Paterson,  they  shall  remain  untouched."  They  still 
remain  untouched,  and  we  trust  shall  remain  untouched ; 
and,  if  instructions  should  at  any  distant  day  again  go  out 
to  cut  them  down,  some  friendly  voice,  certainly,  will  again 
interpose,  and  say — 

"  Woodman,  spare  that  tree." 


144  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

A  few  years  ago  one  of  those  trees  was  3truck  by  light- 
ning, and  very  much  injured.  In  adverting  to  this  circum- 
stance, it  is  but  due  to  mention  that  Lord  Belhaven,  on 
ascertaining  it,  gave  orders  that  the  tree  be  bound  with 
iron,  if  possible  thereby  to  prevent  its  more  rapid  decay. 
Let  those  trees  grow ;  and  when  they  fall,  let  it  only  be  by 
the  hand  of  age.  Even  then,  perhaps,  there  will  be  some 
in  Cambusnethan  parish  cherishing  so  much  respect  for 
them,  and  the  spot  where  they  grew,  and  for  the  cause  for 
which  Arthur  Inglis  suffered,  as  to  be  constrained  to  plant 
young  saplings  in  their  stead.  They  are  memorial  trees ; 
and  as,  in  the  year  1836,  a  new  monument  was  reared  at 
the  grave  of  Arthur  Inglis,  so,  when  it  also  has  decayed,  a 
few,  surely,  will  not  grudge  the  cost  of  rearing  a  fresh 
memorial  of  the  spot  where  the  dust  of  one  of  the  sufferers, 
in  persecuting  times,  sleeps  safely  till  the  resurrection. 

Having  given  these  brief  notices  of  individuals  connected 
with  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan  who  suffered  in  persecu- 
ting times,  several  of  them  unto  death,  and  whose  dust 
mingles  with  "kindred  dust"  in  our  old  church-yard,  it  is 
hoped  that  this  secluded  enclosure  will,  in  public  estimation, 
be  invested  with  a  higher  and  more  sacred  interest  than  it 
has  hitherto  been.  It  is  the  burial-place  of  the  forefathers 
of  many  who  have  listened  to  these  "  Historical  Sketches." 
It  is  a  spot  over  which  the  foot  should  pass  reverently, 
because  many  of  its  "  narrow  houses"  are  occupied  by  the 
bones  of  our  best  patriots — men  who,  on  the  morning  of 
the  resurrection,  shall  have  this  testified  to  them,  that  uthey 
were  faithful  unto  the  death."  This  allusion  to  our  old 
church-yard  cannot  be  dismissed  without  the  quotation  of  a 


PARISH   OP   CAMBUSNETHAN.  145 

few  stanzas  from  Gray's  "  Elegy,"  selected  for  their  ap- 
propriateness : — 

"  Beneath  these  rugged  elms,  that  yew-tree's  shade, 
Where  heaves  the  turf  in  many  a  mouldering  heap, 
Each  in  his  narrow  cell  for  ever  laid, 
The  rude  forefathers  of  the  hamlet  sleep. 

Let  not  ambition  mock  their  useful  toil, 
Their  homely  joys,  and  destiny  obscure; 
Nor  grandeur  hear,  with  a  disdainful  smile, 
The  short  and  simple  annals  of  the  poor. 

Perhaps,  in  this  neglected  spot  is  laid 
Some  heart  once  pregnant  with  celestial  fire  ; 
Hands,  that  the  rod  of  empire  might  have  sway'd, 
Or  waked  to  ecstasy  the  living  lyre. 

Some  village  Hampden,  that,  with  dauntless  breast, 
The  little  tyrant  of  his  fields  withstood; 
Some  mute  inglorious  Milton  here  may  rest; 
Some  Cromwell,  guiltless  of  his  country's  blood. 

Far  from  the  madding  crowd's  ignoble  strife, 
Their  sober  wishes  never  learned  to  stray: 
Along  the  cool  sequester'd  vale  of  life 
They  kept  the  noiseless  tenor  of  their  way. 

Yet  even  these  bones,  from  insult  to  protect, 
Some  frail  memorial  still  erected  nigh, 
With  uncouth  rhymes  and  shapless  sculpture  deck'd, 
Implores  the  passing  tribute  of  a  sigh." 

The  name  of  Donald  Cargill  occupies  a  very  conspicuous 
place  on  the  roll  of  our  Scottish  martyrology.  He  was  at 
one  time  minister  of  the  Barony  parish  of  Glasgow.  He 
took  a  very  early  and  decided  stand  against  the  Prelatic 
party  in  Scotland,  and,  for  having  done  so,  was  banished 

K 


146  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

beyond  the  Tay.  He  became  a  leader  among  what  may  be 
regarded  as  having  been  the  extreme  party  of  the  Covenan- 
ters. He  was  strongly  opposed  to  the  "  Indulgence,"  and 
to  those  who  countenanced  the  indulged  ministers.  He  had 
a  principal  hand  in  drawing  up  the  "Sanquhar  Declaration." 
His  most  notable  act  was  his  preaching  at  Torwood,  near 
Stirling,  when,  after  sermon,  he  solemnly  pronounced  the 
higher  sentence  of  excommunication  against  Charles  II., 
the  Duke  of  York,  the  Dukes  of  Monmouth,  Lauderdale, 
Rothes,  and  others.  Five  thousand  merks  were  offered  as  a 
reward  for  his  apprehension.  His  last  sermon  was  preached 
at  Dunsyre-common,  in  June,  1681.  He  lodged  that  night 
at  Covington  mill,  and  during  the  night  was  apprehended 
and  brought  to  Lanark  Jail.  Next  day  he  was  brought 
through  Cambusnethan  to  Glasgow.  From  Glasgow  he 
was  carried  to  Edinburgh,  and  after  trial  before  the  Council 
he  was  condemned,  and  on  the  27th  July,  1681,  he  was 
hanged,  beheaded,  and  his  head  placed  upon  the  Nether- 
Bow. 

Our  reason  for  introducing  Donald  Cargill  is,  that  he  had 
rather  an  interesting  connection  with  the  parish  of  Cambus- 
nethan, frequently  visited  it,  preached  in  it,  and  found 
refuge  in  it.  Darngavel,  and  Benty-rig  near  Stanebent,  are 
two  of  the  places  in  Cambusnethan  which  Mr.  Cargill  fre- 
quently visited,  and  at  which  he  preached.  It  was  during 
his  last  visit  to  Darngavel  that  he  had  an  interview  with 
the  leaders  of  a  sect  which  had  been  originated  at  Borrow- 
stounness,  who,  after  the  name  of  their  principal  leader,  were 
called  "  Gibbites."  They  were  then  on  their  way  westward, 
but  got  no  farther  than  Strathaven.     Under  the  guise  of 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  147 

great  devotion  and  earnestness,  there  was  a  large  measure 
of  fanaticism  and  blasphemy.  The  leniency  which  the 
government  shewed  them,  led  many  to  suspect  that  the 
Jesuits  of  the  day  secretly  encouraged  them.  One  of  Mr. 
Cargill's  last  services  was  at  Benty-rig,  as  he  does  not 
appear,  between  the  time  of  his  last  visit  to  it  and  his  ap- 
prehension, to  have  preached  anywhere  except  at  Auchin- 
gilloch — a  lonely  ravine  among  the  uplands  of  Lanarkshire, 
several  miles  from  any  human  dwelling,  and  near  the  sources 
of  the  Logan  and  the  Kype,  two  of  the  tributaries  of  the 
Clyde.  Reference  has  already  been  repeatedly  made  to 
John  Miller,  in  Watersaugh,  who  built  Cambusnethan  kirk 
in  the  year  1650,  and  who  suffered  a  long  imprisonment  for 
alleged  correspondence  with  rebels.  Mrs.  Miller,  the  worthy 
spouse  of  the  occupant  of  Watersaugh,  was  the  sister  of 
Donald  Cargill,  and  Watersaugh  thus  became  one  of  the 
haunts  and  hiding-places  of  Cargill.  The  late  Mr.  James 
Paterson,  who  long  tenanted  Watersaugh,  and  died  there, 
was  thoroughly  conversant  with  the  antiquities  of  the  parish, 
and  to  him  the  author  was  much  indebted  for  the  information 
which  he  obtained  regarding  Mr.  Cargill,  and  other  incidents 
recorded  in  this  volume.  On  one  occasion,  when  Mr.  Car- 
gill was  under  hiding  in  Watersaugh,  his  enemies  got  notice, 
of  it,  and  were  in  the  court,  before  the  door,  before  any  of 
the  inmates  were  aware  of  the  danger  in  which  the  servant 
of  God  was  thus  placed.  From  the  under-flat  of  this  old 
mansion  there  is  a  door-way  leading  to  the  river,  which 
flows  past  it  at  the  distance  of  only  a  few  yards.  From 
this  door- way  Cargill  managed  to  escape;  and,  dashing 
through  the  river,  found  refuge  in  the  adjoining  woods,  till 
his  pursuers,  finding  they  had  lost  their  prey,  had  with- 


148  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

drawn.  The  old  house  of  Watersaugh  has  many  interesting 
historical  and  local  associations,  but,  on  passing  it,  the 
association  ever  uppermost  in  the  writer's  mind  is,  that 
under  its  hospitable  roof  Cargili  often  found  shelter  and 
repose,  and  that  from  the  low  door- way,  facing  the  river,  he 
escaped  on  the  occasion  referred  to. 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  Darmeid,  one  of  the 
solitudes  on  the  eastern  moors  of  Cambusnethan,  in  which 
the  persecuted  often  met  for  worship,  and  in  which  many  of 
the  measures  which  were  adopted  by  them  were  planned. 
One  of  these  measures  is  known  in  the  history  of  the  period 
as  the  "  Sanquhar  Declaration,'7  from  its  having  been  first 
published  at  the  cross  of  Sanquhar,  in  Dumfriesshire.  Those 
who  framed  this  "Declaration"  had  made  up  their  minds 
to  "disown  Charles  Stuart,  who  had  been  reigning — or 
rather  tyrannizing — on  the  throne  of  Britain  these  years 
byegone,  as  having  any  right,  title  to,  or  interest  in  the 
said  crown  of  Scotland  for  government,  as  forfeited  several 
years  since,  by  his  perjury,  and  breach  of  covenant  both  to 
God  and  his  kirk,  and  usurpation  of  his  crown  and  royal 
prerogatives  therein — and  also  disown,  and  by  this  resent, 
the  reception  of  the  Duke  of  York,  that  professed  papist — 
and  protest  against  his  succeeding  to  the  crown."  There 
are  good  reasons  for  concluding  that  this  "Declaration" 
was,  after  a  season  of  fasting  and  prayer,  prepared  at  Dar- 
meid, in  the  summer  of  1680,  by  Cargili  and  Cameron,  and 
those  who  homolgated  their  views  in  renouncing  allegiance 
to  the  House  of  Stuart. 

There  is  another  name  which  must  be  mentioned  in 


PARISH    OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  149 

connexion  with  Darmeid  and  the  parish  of  Cambusnethan, 
that  of  James  Ren  wick,  the  last  of  the  Scottish  martyrs. 
When  prosecuting  his  studies  for  the  ministry  at  the  univer- 
sity of  Edinburgh,  and  before  completing  his  nineteenth 
year,  he  came  to  decided  views  on  the  great  religious  ques- 
tions of  the  day.  He  joined  the  party  who  condemned  the 
"  Indulgence."  He  was  present  at  the  execution  of  Mr. 
Donald  Cargill,  and  from  that  day  determined  to  cast  in  his 
lot  with  the  party  with  whom  Cargill  had  associated.  The 
"  Declaration "  published  by  the  Covenanters  at  the  cross 
of  Lanark,  in  January,  1682,  was  read  by  Mr.  Ren  wick. 
After  this  his  friends,  who  were  greatly  edified  by  his  piety 
and  gifts,  sent  him  to  complete  his  studies  at  Groningen, 
where,  in  April,  1683,  he  was,  by  imposition  of  hands, 
ordained  to  the  office  of  the  ministry.  In  September,  1683, 
he  returned  to  Scotland,  and  was  at  once  chosen  by  the 
44  Society  people"  to  be  their  minister.  His  first  sermon  to 
them  was  delivered  in  Darmeid.  In  the  Diary  of  Serjeant 
Nisbet  there  is  the  following  record  of  the  discourse  delivered 
on  this  occasion : — "I  went  sixteen  miles  to  hear  Mr.  James 
Renwick,  a  faithful  servant  of  Jesus  Christ,  who  was  a 
young  man  endued  with  great  piety,  prudence,  and  modera- 
tion. The  meeting  was  held  in  a  large  desolate  muir.  He 
appeared  to  be  accompanied  with  much  of  his  Master's 
presence.  He  preached  from  Mark  xii.  34.  In  the  fore- 
noon he  gave  us  several  marks  of  the  hypocrite,  with  per- 
tinent applications.  In  the  afternoon  he  gave  us  several 
marks  of  the  saved  believer,  and  made  a  large,  full,  and 
free  offer  of  Christ  to  all  sorts  of  perishing  sinners.  His 
method  was  clear,  plain,  and  well  digested,  suiting  the 
substance  and  simplicity  of  the  gospel.     This  was  a  great 


150  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

day  of  the  Son  of  Man,  to  many  poor  exercised  souls,  who 
this  day  got  a  Pisgah  view  of  the  Prince  of  Life." 

After  the  death  of  Cameron  and  Cargill,  Mr.  Renwick 
was  the  only  minister  who  ventured  to  preach  in  the  fields. 
He  must  have  had  a  partiality  for  Darmeid,  as  in  the  min- 
utes of  the  Privy  Council,  under  date  25th  May,  1685, 
Darmeid  is  particularly  mentioned  as  the  resort  "  of  persons 
to  hear  that  supposed  preacher, — a  disturber  of  the  peace 
and  of  all  honest  men, — Mr.  James  Renwick."  His  lot  fell 
in  peculiarly  trying  times.  His  constitution  was  not  of  the 
most  vigorous  class,  and  was  enfeebled  by  excessive  travel- 
ling on  foot,  to  minister  to  the  persecuted  and  scattered  flock, 
night  wanderings,  unseasonable  sleep,  and  frequent  preach- 
ing. The  sands  of  his  glass  soon  ran  out.  He  was  apprehen- 
ded, and  executed  at  Edinburgh  in  February,  1688.  His 
execution  probably  fixed  the  deepest  stamp  of  infamy  on  the 
government,  as  it  seems  to  have  been  the  means  of  arresting 
the  current  of  blood,  which,  for  twenty-eight  years,  had 
flowed  on  the  streets,  and  upland  moors  of  Scotland. 

As  Darmeid  was  associated  with  the  ministry  of  the 
youthful  Renwick,  the  last  of  the  martyrs,  Grahame,  in  his 
poem  on  the  "  Sabbath,"  has  the  following  touching  allusion 
to  it : — 

' '  In  solitudes  like  these 
Thy  persecuted  children,  Scotia,  foiled 
A  tyrant,  and  a  bigot's  bloody  laws. 

There  leaning  on  his  spear 

The  lyart  vet'ran  heard  the  word  of  God 

By  Cameron  thundered,  or  by  Renwick  poured 

In  gentle  stream. 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  151 

t 

"O'er  their  souls 
His  accents  soothing  came — as  to  her  young 
The  heath-fowl's  plumes,  when  at  the  close  of  eve 
She  gathers  in,  mournful,  her  brood  dispersed 
By  murderous  sport,  and  o'er  the  remnant  spreads 
Fondly  her  wings ;  close  nestling  'neath  her  breast 
They,  cherished,  cower  amid  the  purple  blooms." 

We  must  now  conclude,  and  do  so  expressing  a  strong 
conviction  that  the  history  of  the  covenanting  period  has 
yet  to  be  written,  and  that  a  faithful  portrait  of  the  Cove- 
nanters has  yet  to  be  drawn.  It  is  greatly  to  be  regretted 
that  the  principal  writers  of  last  century — historians  and 
poets — had  either  little  sympathy  for  them,  or  a  positive 
dislike.  The  accumulated  genius  which  was  concentrated 
in  David  Hume,  Adam  Smith,  Hugh  Blair,  Lord  Kaimes, 
Principal  Robertson,  Dugald  Stewart,  Allan  Ramsay,  Rob- 
ert Ferguson,  and  Robert  Burns,  can  scarcely  be  expected 
to  develope  itself  again,  during  any  one  half-century  of 
Scottish  history ;  and  yet,  none  of  these  gifted  writers 
expressed  a  syllable  of  sympathy  for  the  Covenanters  or 
their  struggles.  There  is  one  writer  on  our  list,  a  native  of 
one  of  the  principal  of  the  covenanting  districts,  and  whose 
life  was  spent  among  them,  who  possessed  the  talent  requisite 
for  the  task,  and  might  have  so  employed  it,  but  for  the 
unhappy  direction  given  to  his  religious  feelings,  by  the 
discipline  which  the  church  exercised  towards  him,  because 
of  his  earlier  immoralities — Robert  Burns.  The  heart  that 
could  pour  out  its  patriotism  on  the  field  of  Bannockburn, 
in  the  inspiring  lines  beginning  thus — 

"  Scots  wha  ha'e  wi'  Wallace  bled," 

was  certainly  competent  to  have  chaunted  the  sufferings, 


152  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

and  struggles  for  liberty,  of  the  men  whose  blood,  we  think, 
has  served  to  give  a  deeper  tinge  to  the  heather  blossoms  of 
his  own  Ayrshire  moors.  And  had  Burns  sung  "  but  one 
paean  over  Drumclog,  or  a  lament  for  Bothwell,  or  an  elegy 
over  Cameron's  grave,"  his  genius  and  memory  would  have 
been  honoured  by  posterity  more  highly  than  they  have 
been.  It  is  generally  understood  that  when  Sir  Walter 
Scott  entertained  serious  thoughts  of  becoming  a  novelist, 
the  story  of  the  Covenanters  was  intended  to  have  been  his 
earliest  theme.  It  has  been  fortunate  for  his  literary  fame 
that  that  intention  was  not  executed.  "  Old  Mortality" 
has  evoked  more  criticism  and  censure  than  any  other  of  the 
uWaverley  Xovels."  Thousands  know  nothing  of  the 
Covenanters  but  from  this  novel;  and,  biased  by  the 
graphic  sketches  of  Sir  Walter,  look  upon  them  as  having 
been  a  body  of  raving  enthusiasts,  whom  the  government 
sought  to  suppress,  by  unnecessary  and  excessive  cruelty. 
"  Old  Mortality"  is  not  a  history  of  the  covenanting  period, 
but  is  in  many  respects  a  carricature  of  it.  A  carricature 
has,  doubtless,  many  salient  points  about  it,  but  its  primary 
tendency  is  to  furnish  amusement.  Roars  of  laughter  are 
still  occasioned  by  the  drollery — the  mingled  simplicity  and 
slyness — of  "Cuddy  Headrig"  and  his  " mither ;*  while 
disgust  is  excited  by  the  words  put  into  the  mouths  of  those 
reputed  to  be  the  preachers  among  the  Covenanters.  But 
u01d  Mortality"  is  not  the  work  that  must  be  carefully 
perused,  if  a  full  and  fair  estimate  is  to  be  formed  of  the 
earnestness,  patriotism,  piety,  and  literature  of  the  Cove- 
nanters. That  they  had  their  failings,  that  they  held 
principles  and  carried  them  out  in  a  manner  which  we 
cannot  approve,  we  frankly  avow  ;  but  we  are  not  blind  to 


PARISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  153 

the  excellencies  of  their  character,  nor  insensible  to  the 
obligations  under  which  they  have  laid  us,  by  their  struggle 
for  those  liberties  which  were  denied  them,  and  which  have 
long  been  secured  for  our  country.  When  men  are  battling 
for  great  principles  ;  when  the  conflict  is  a  protracted  one, 
and  when  the  principal  actors  in  it  are  driven  from  their 
homes  into  hiding-places  or  exile,  and  many  of  them  are 
being  hunted  to  death, — they  have  little  leisure  for  calm 
and  cool  reflection ;  and,  under  the  excitement  of  their 
circumstances,  will  say  and  do  many  things  which  they 
themselves,  as  well  as  posterity,  may  regret.  And  while  it 
would  be  uncharitable  not  to  make  this  allowance,  it  would 
be  uncandid,  not  to  place  in  the  broad  day-light  of  historic 
truth,  the  treachery  and  tyranny  of  the  men  in  power,  to- 
wards the  very  individuals  but  for  whom  they  never  would 
have  been  honoured  to  hold  the  reins  of  civil  rule ;  and 
equally  uncandid  not  to  affirm,  that,  in  the  righteous  pro- 
vidence of  God,  these  types  of  treachery  and  tyranny  were, 
by  the  voice  of  an  indignant  nation,  driven  from  their  places, 
that  they  might  be  filled  by  men  who  appreciated  the  prin- 
ciples of  constitutional  liberty. 

History  is  far  better  written  a  hundred  years  after  the 
incidents  of  a  particular  period  have  taken  place,  than  it 
could  have  been  at  the  moment  of  their  occurrence.  At  the 
period  when  they  are  taking  place,  men's  minds  are  excited, 
and  apt  to  misrepresent  the  real  facts  of  the  time.  The 
writing  of  history  requires  a  calm,  reflective  spirit.  Again, 
a  considerable  period  must  necessarily  elapse  before  all  the 
materials  can  be  collected,  out  of  which  to  form  a  well- 
digested  history,  and  give  to  the  principles  of  a  bygone  age 


154  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES   OF   THE 

their  true  features.  Some  men  have  been  better  known  a 
century  after  they  were  buried,  and  their  characters  been 
more  fairly  dealt  with,  than  when  they  were  acting  their 
part  in  the  great  drama  of  life.  u  By  their  fruits  ye  shall 
know  them."  James  I.  and  his  sons,  who  terminated  the 
Stuart  dynasty,  have  had  their  eulogists ;  but  the  atmo- 
sphere of  their  court  was  not  the  most  salubrious,  and  has 
been  all  the  better  for  the  ventilation  which  has  been  given 
it.  Dr.  Bainolds  and  his  three  brethren — Puritans  as  they 
were  —  standing  at  the  bottom  of  the  Council  table  of 
Hampton  Court,  are  an  infinitely  finer  group  than  James 
and  his  bishops  seated  at  the  top  of  it.  The  meekness  of 
young  M'Kaii,  when  under  the  torture  of  the  boot  in  Edin- 
burgh, will  be  looked  at  and  admired,  in  preference  to  the 
cruelty  of  Lauderdale,  which  could  sit  unmoved  in  the 
presence  of  these  sufferings.  Harvey's  picture  of  "The 
Covenanter's  Baptism  "  in  the  mountain  dell,  awakens  in  a 
truly  devout  mind,  far  higher  and  holier  feelings  than  when 
gazing  on  a  picture  of  cathedral  worship ;  and  as  Cromwell, 
Hampden,  and  Pym,  are  now  adjudged  to  have  been  the 
pioneers  of  the  Revolution,  we  must  apply  to  the  men  of  the 
covenanting  times  the  lines  of  Cowper — 

"  They  of  old,  whose  tempered  blades 
Dispersed  the  shackles  of  usurped  control, 
And  hewed  them  link  from  link— then  Britain's  sons 
Were  sons  indeed." 

The  late  Dr.  M'Crie,  who  came  forward  to  vindicate  the 
Covenanters  from  the  attack  which  Sir  Walter  Scott  had 
made  on  them,  has  thus  expressed  himself : — "  What 
although,  in  discharging  their  arduous  duty,  in  times  of 


PAKISH   OF   CAMBUSNETHAN.  155 

unexampled  trial,  they  were  guilty  of  partial  irregularities, 
and  some  of  them  of  individual  crimes  ?  What  although  the 
language  in  which  they  expressed  themselves  was  homely, 
and  appears  to  our  ears  coarse,  and  unsuitable  to  the  sub- 
ject ?  What  although  they  gave  a  greater  prominence  to 
some  points,  and  laid  a  greater  stress  on  some  articles,  than 
we  may  now  think  they  were  entitled  to  ?  What  although 
they  discovered  an  immoderate  heat  and  irritation  of  spirit, 
considering  the  barbarous  and  brutal  manner  in  which  they 
had  long  been  treated?  What  although  they  fell  into 
parties,  and  quarrelled  among  themselves,  when  we  consider 
the  crafty  and  insidious  measures  employed  by  their  adver- 
saries to  disunite  them — and  when  we  can  perceive  them 
actuated  by  honesty  and  principle,  even  in  the  greatest 
errors  into  which  they  were  betrayed  ?  These,  granting 
them  to  be  all  true,  may  form  a  proper  subject  for  sober 
statement,  and  for  cool  animadversion,  but  never  for  turning 
the  whole  of  their  conduct  into  ridicule,  or  treating  them 
with  scurrilous  buffoonery.  No  enlightened  friend  to  civil 
and  religious  liberty — no  person  whose  moral  and  humane 
feelings  have  not  been  warped  by  the  most  lamentable  party 
prejudices,  would  over  think  of  treating  them  in  this  manner. 
They  were  sufferers — they  were  suffering  unjustly — they 
were  demanding  only  what  they  were  entitled  to  enjoy — 
they  persevered  in  their  demands  until  they  were  successful, 
and  to  their  disinterested  struggles,  and  their  astonishing 
perseverance,  we  are  indebted,  under  God,  for  the  blessings 
we  enjoy." 

In  parting  with  our  subject,  and  presenting  one  other 
portrait  of  the  Covenanters  and  their  principles,  we  apply  to 


156  HISTORICAL   SKETCHES. 

them  the  following  sketch  from  the  pencil  of  Lord  Macaulay. 
Speaking  of  the  Puritans  of  England,  he  says : — If  they 
were  unaquainted  with  the  works  of  philosophers  and  poets, 
they  were  deeply  read  in  the  oracles  of  God.  If  their  names 
were  not  found  in  the  registers  of  heralds,  they  were  recorded 
in  the  Book  of  Life.  If  their  steps  were  not  attended  by  a 
splendid  train  of  menials,  legions  of  ministering  angels  had 
charge  over  them.  Their  palaces  were  houses  not  made 
with  hands — their  diadems,  crowns  of  glory  which  should 
never  fade  away.  On  the  rich  and  the  eloquent,  on  nobles 
and  priests,  they  looked  down  with  contempt,  for  they  es- 
teemed themselves  rich  in  a  more  precious  treasure,  and 
eloquent  in  a  more  sublime  language — nobles  by  the  right 
of  an  earlier  creation,  and  priests  by  the  imposition  of  a 
mightier  hand." 


THE    END. 


D.  JOHNSTON,  PRINTER,  WISH  AW. 


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